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Table 4 Multivariable adjusted models for the association between sanitation characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes

From: Effects of sanitation practices on adverse pregnancy outcomes in India: a conducive finding from recent Indian demographic health survey

Characteristics Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval
Lower limit Upper limit
Access to toilet
 No access® 1   
 In house 0.87*** 0.832 0.901
 Shared toilet 1.01 0.966 1.058
Availability of hand wash
 No availability® 1   
 Available 1.01 0.981 1.048
Age group
 15–19® 1   
 20–24 0.87*** 0.806 0.942
 25–29 0.79*** 0.730 0.857
 30–34 0.79*** 0.729 0.866
 35–39 0.81*** 0.740 0.896
 40–44 0.80*** 0.704 0.900
 No education® 1   
 Primary 0.99 0.948 1.042
 Secondary 0.84*** 0.811 0.879
 Higher 0.69*** 0.647 0.733
Parity
 1® 1   
 2 0.89*** 0.855 0.919
 > 3 0.90*** 0.862 0.939
BMI
 Underweight® 1   
 Normal 0.78*** 0.757 0.810
 Overweight 0.76*** 0.726 0.801
Anemia
 Severe® 1   
 Moderate 0.77*** 0.668 0.889
 Mild 0.69*** 0.602 0.795
 Not anaemic 0.67**** 0.586 0.775
ANC visit
 0® 1   
 1 0.91* 0.845 0.976
 2 0.91*** 0.859 0.958
 > 3 0.84*** 0.803 0.875
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < .05, *p < 0.1