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Table 3 Predictors of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among women with GDM using multiple logistic regression (n = 526)

From: Prevalence and factors associated with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among women with gestational diabetes mellitus in tertiary care centres in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

Parameters Depressive Symptoms Anxiety Symptoms Stress Symptoms
Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value
A Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment Profile
 Self-Monitoring with Glucometer No 1.743 (0.813–3.737) 0.153     
Yes Reference     
 Treatments OAD and/or diet modification    Reference   
Insulin with/out OAD and/or diet modification    1.204 (0.803–1.806) 0.369   
Socio-Demographic Factors
 Age    0.955 (0.919–0.993) 0.020   
 Ethnicity Malay Reference Reference Reference
Non-Malay 0.537 (0.030–9.660) 0.673 1.533 (0.944–2.492) 0.084 0.492 (0.030–8.214) 0.622
 Religion Muslim Reference Reference Reference
Non-Muslim 2.937 (1.434–6.018) 0.003 0.891 (0.234–3.394) 0.866 2.451 (1.273–4.718) 0.007
 Education Secondary and below 1.168 (0.607–2.248) 0.641     
Tertiary Reference     
 Marital Status Without husband 1.285 (0.252–6.551) 0.763     
With husband Reference     
 Parity Nulliparous- Primiparous    0.968 (0.621–1.509) 0.886   
Multiparous ≥2    1.000   
Past Obstetric History
 Abortion No Reference Reference   
Yes 1.251 (0.585–2.675) 0.563 1.351 (0.878–2.078) 0.171   
 Preterm Delivery No    Reference   
Yes    1.901 (0.760–4.753) 0.169   
 Gestational diabetes mellitus       Reference
      1.351 (0.700–2.605) 0.370
Current Medical Problems
 Allergy No Reference   Reference Reference
Yes 2.543 (0.455–14.208) 0.288 1.634 (0.421–6.346) 0.478 3.224 (0.781–13.304) 0.106
 Asthma No    Reference Reference
Yes    2.436 (1.219–4.870) 0.012 1.966 (0.806–4.798) 0.137
Family History
 Heart Disease No Reference     
Yes 2.015 (0.944–4.302) 0.070     
 Depression and Anxiety No Reference Reference Reference
Yes 4.706 (1.362–16.254) 0.014 4.782 (1.281–17.853) 0.020 1.949 (0.510–7.451) 0.329
 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus No Reference    Reference
Yes 1.258 (0.646–2.449) 0.500    1.521 (0.844–2.739) 0.163
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05