Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of pregnant women and its association with domestic violence during current pregnancy

From: Domestic violence among antenatal attendees in a Kathmandu hospital and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Number = 404 (%) Experience of domestic violence p value Crude OR
No Yes
Age of woman
  < 25 177 (43.8) 130 (44.2) 47 (42.7)   Ref
 25–29 149 (36.9) 108 (36.7) 41 (37.3) 0.845 1.05 (0.64–1.72)
  ≥ 30 78 (19.3) 56 (19) 22 (20) 0.784 1.09 (0.60–1.97)
Ethnicity
 Upper caste 247 (61.1) 192 (65.3) 55 (50)   Ref
 Othersa 157 (38.9) 102 (34.7) 55 (50) 0.005* 1.88 (1.21–2.94)
Religion
 Hindu 348 (86.2) 260 (88.4) 88 (80)   Ref
 Buddhist/Christian/Kirat/Muslim 56 (13.8) 34 (11.6) 22 (20) 0.031* 1.91 (1.06–3.44)
Education of woman
 Literate 389 (96.3) 285 (96.9) 104 (94.5)   Ref
 Illiterate 15 (3.7) 9 (3.1) 6 (5.5) 0.264 0.55 (0.19–1.58)
Occupation of woman
 Unemployed 262 (64.9) 192 (65.3) 70 (63.6)   Ref
 Employed 142 (35.1) 102 (32.7) 40 (36.4) 0.754 1.08 (0.68–1.70)
Type of marriage
 Arrange marriage 234 (57.9) 179 (60.9) 55 (50.0)   Ref
 Love marriage 170 (42.1) 115 (39.1) 55 (50.0) 0.049* 1.56 (1.00–2.42)
Duration of marriage
  ≤ 1 142 (35.1) 91 (31) 51 (46.4)   Ref
 2–5 146 (36.1) 117 (39.8) 29 (26.4) 0.003* 0.44 (0.26–0.75)
 6–9 87 (21.6) 67 (22.8) 20 (18.2) 0.042* 0.53 (0.29–0.98)
  ≥ 10 29 (7.2) 19 (6.5) 10 (9.1) 0.883 0.94 (0.41–2.17)
Type of family
 Nuclear 153 (37.8) 105 (35.7) 48 (43.6)   Ref
 Joint/Extended 251 (62.2) 189 (64.3) 62 (56.4) 0.145 0.72 (0.46–1.12)
Family size
  ≤ 5 members 301 (74.5) 218 (74.1) 83 (75.5)   Ref
  > 5 members 103 (25.5) 76 (25.9) 27 (24.5) 0.789 0.93 (0.56–1.55)
Economic Status
 Rich 159 (54.1) 43 (39.1)   Ref
 Poor 135 (45.9) 67 (60.9) 0.008* 1.84 (1.17–2.87)
Number of living children
 None 258 (63.9) 178 (60.5) 80 (72.7)   Ref
 One or two children 146 (36.1) 116 (39.5) 30 (27.3) 0.024* 0.58 (0.36–0.93)
Intended pregnancy
 No 92 (22.8) 59 (20.1) 33 (30)   Ref
 Yes 312 (77.2) 235 (79.9) 77 (70) 0.035* 0.59 (0.36–0.96)
Abortion/Miscarriage
 No 302 (74.8) 227 (77.2) 75 (68.2)   Ref
 yes 102 (25.2) 67 (22.8) 35 (31.8) 0.064 1.58 (0.97–2.57)
Experience of violence before
 No 323 (80.0) 275 (93.5) 48 (43.6)   Ref
 Yes 81 (20.0) 19 (6.5) 62 (56.4) <0.001* 18.70 (10.28–34.01)
  1. Ref = Reference
  2. * = p value <0.05
  3. aDisadvantaged, advantaged janajatis, dalit, disadvantaged non dalit terai people, religious minorities