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Table 2 Maternal characteristics according to extent of smoking during pregnancy

From: Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

Maternal characteristics Extent of smoking during pregnancy measured per day (n = 770) ¥
< 1 cigarette (n = 99) 1-5 cigarettes (n = 380) 6-10 cigarettes (n = 203) ≥ 11 cigarettes (n = 88) p-value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Region of residency      
Western Europe* 37 (37.4) 135 (35.5) 78 (38.4) 27 (30.7) 0.068
Northern Europe 36 (36.4) 98 (25.8) 53 (26.1) 19 (21.6)  
Eastern Europe§ 26 (26.3) 147 (38.7) 72 (35.5) 42 (47.7)  
Maternal age      
≤ 20 8 (8.1) 25 (6.6) 17 (8.4) 1 (1.1) 0.293
21-30 61 (61.6) 227 (59.7) 117 (57.6) 53 (60.2)  
31-40 29 (29.3) 118 (31.1) 68 (33.5) 31 (35.2)  
> 40 1 (1.0) 10 (2.6) 1 (0.5) 3 (3.4)  
Marital status      
Married/cohabiting 88 (88.9) 324 (85.3) 180 (88.7) 75 (85.2) 0.588
Other 11 (11.1) 56 (14.7) 23 (11.3) 13 (14.8)  
Highest education level      
Less than high school 9 (9.1) 44 (11.6) 26 (12.8) 16 (18.2) 0.339
High school 39 (39.4) 178 (46.8) 93 (45.8) 37 (42.0)  
More than high school 38 (38.4) 112 (29.5) 53 (26.1) 27 (30.7)  
Other 13 (13.1) 46 (12.1) 31 (15.3) 8 (9.1)  
Health literacy ¥¥      
Low 9 (9.3) 33 (8.8) 24 (12.1) 8 (9.4) 0.655
Medium 41 (42.3) 184 (49.3) 88 (44.2) 36 (42.4)  
High 47 (48.5) 156 (41.8) 87 (43.7) 41 (48.2)  
Working status      
Employed (not as HCP) 64 (64.6) 210 (55.4) 100 (49.3) 44 (50.6) 0.109
HCP 11 (11.1) 40 (10.6) 16 (7.9) 5 (5.7)  
Housewife 7 (7.1) 40 (10.6) 25 (12.3) 10 (11.5)  
Other 17 (17.2) 89 (23.5) 62 (30.5) 28 (32.2)  
First language      
Same as in country of residency 91 (91.9) 361 (95.3) 196 (96.6) 84 (96.6) 0.314
Other 8 (8.1) 18 (4.7) 7 (3.4) 3 (3.4)  
Previous children      
No 58 (58.6) 196 (51.6) 95 (46.8) 36 (40.9) 0.071
Yes 41 (41.4) 184 (48.4) 108 (53.2) 52 (59.1)  
Morbidity not incl. RD **      
Yes 21 (21.2) 71 (18.7) 46 (22.7) 19 (21.6) 0.695
No 78 (78.8) 309 (81.3) 157 (77.3) 69 (78.4)  
Respiratory disease ††      
Yes 9 (9.1) 33 (8.7) 18 (8.9) 11 (12.5) 0.731
No 90 (90.9) 347 (91.3) 185 (91.1) 77 (87.5)  
Planned pregnancy      
Yes/ not completely unexpected 78 (78.8) 317 (83.4) 172 (84.7) 80 (90.9) 0.151
No, it was not planned 21 (21.2) 63 (16.6) 31 (15.3) 8 (9.1)  
Folic acid use §§      
Yes 84 (86.6) 322 (86.1) 167 (83.1) 68 (81.9) 0.632
No 13 (13.4) 52 (13.9) 34 (16.9) 15 (18.1)  
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy      
Yes 35 (35.4) 67 (17.7) 34 (16.9) 18 (20.9) 0.001
No 64 (64.6) 312 (82.3) 167 (83.1) 68 (79.1)  
  1. HCP = health care provider; RD = respiratory disease.
  2. ¥One women (0.1%) did not provide information on extent of smoking in the sub-population of women smoking during pregnancy (n = 771).
  3. Numbers may not add up to total due to missing values. For Folic acid use and Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the response ‘cannot remember’ was treated as a missing value. Missing values are less than 5% of the total.
  4. *Includes Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom.
  5. Includes Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
  6. §Includes Croatia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia.
  7. ¥¥Measured by a self-assessment scale comprising three questions corresponding to the set of brief screening questions (SBSQ) developed to detect inadequate or marginal health literacy in clinical settings [26, 27].
  8. **Includes the presence of a chronic disease (hypothyroidism, rheumatic diseases (incl. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), diabetes (type I or II), epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases (incl. hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart diseases) or others (open-ended option)).
  9. ††Includes the presence of asthma, allergy, rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, or other respiratory tract conditions.
  10. §§Indicates folic acid use before and/or during pregnancy.