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Pregnancy and childbirth in low and middle income countries

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth in the developing world.

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  1. Mothers of premature newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have complex needs and require a significant amount of support during the NICU admission. However, little is known about mothers' suppor...

    Authors: Reza Negarandeh, Hadi Hassankhani, Mahnaz Jabraeili, Mohammad Abbaszadeh and Amy Best

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:520

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the leading cause of maternal mortality in Indonesia. Focused HDP management pathways for Indonesian primary care practice have been developed from a consensus dev...

    Authors: Fitriana Murriya Ekawati, Ova Emilia, Jane Gunn, Sharon Licqurish and Phyllis Lau

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:507

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and has severe consequences on the well-being of mothers, new-borns, families, and communities. PPD reduces the mother’s response to the...

    Authors: Catherine Atuhaire, Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Grace Nambozi, Joseph Ngonzi, Daniel Atwine, Samuel Nambile Cumber and Laura Brennaman

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:503

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Haemoglobin genotype screening at prenatal care offers women an opportunity to be aware of their genotype, receive education on sickle cell disease (SCD) and may increase maternal demand for SCD newborn screen...

    Authors: Osita U. Ezenwosu, Ijeoma U. Itanyi, Obiageli E. Nnodu, Amaka G. Ogidi, Fabian Mgbeahurike and Echezona E. Ezeanolue

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:498

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Women-held documents are a basic component of continuity of maternity care. The use and completion of women-held documents following discharge could improve treatment and care for postnatal women. Using a mixe...

    Authors: Tiffany Gooden, Lotta Gustafsson, Fides Lu, Faith Rickard, Alice Sitch, Carole Cummins, Kebba Manneh, Amie Wilson, Christine MacArthur and Semira Manaseki-Holland

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:479

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are public health problems widely distributed in the world and cause significant morbidity and mortality; many of which occur among women of reproductive age. IPIs caused...

    Authors: Zelalem Animaw, Addisu Melese, Habtamu Demelash, Girma Seyoum and Abiy Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:474

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Eclampsia, considered as serious complication of preeclampsia, remains a life-threatening condition among pregnant women. It accounts for 12% of maternal deaths and 16–31% of perinatal deaths worldwide. Most d...

    Authors: Koech Irene, Poli Philippe Amubuomombe, Richard Mogeni, Cheruiyot Andrew, Ann Mwangi and Orang’o Elkanah Omenge

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:439

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Asthma is the most common respiratory disease among children, while atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis affect about 20% of infants under 2 years of age. Studies suggested that these conditions might be ...

    Authors: Shuguang Chen and Sheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:435

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of disorders that arise from the failure of the neural tube close between 21 and 28 days after conception. About 90% of neural tube defects and 95% of death due to these ...

    Authors: Daniel Atlaw, Yohannes Tekalegn, Biniyam Sahiledengle, Kenbon Seyoum, Damtew Solomon, Habtamu Gezahegn, Zerihun Tariku, Yared Tekle and Vijay Kumar Chattu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:426

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Global disparities in maternal mortality could be reduced by universal facility delivery. Yet, deficiencies in the quality of care prevent some mothers from seeking facility-based obstetric care. Obstetric car...

    Authors: Kirsten Austad, Michel Juarez, Hannah Shryer, Patricia L. Hibberd, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Peter Rohloff and Anita Chary

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:425

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The rate of neonatal mortality has declined but lesser than the infant mortality rate and remains a major public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on newbor...

    Authors: Rajbanshi Sushma, Mohd Noor Norhayati and Nik Hussain Nik Hazlina

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:422

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Prenatal alcohol consumption is a serious public health concern that is considered as one of the preventable risk factors for neonatal and childhood morbidity and several adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study...

    Authors: Alemu Earsido Addila, Telake Azale, Yigzaw Kebede Gete and Mezgebu Yitayal

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:419

    Content type: Research article

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  13. On the 27th of March 2020 the Zimbabwean government declared the Covid-19 pandemic a ‘national disaster’. Travel restrictions and emergency regulations have had significant impacts on maternity services, includin...

    Authors: Clare Shakespeare, Handsome Dube, Sikhangezile Moyo and Solwayo Ngwenya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:416

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Stillbirth is the most frequently reported adverse pregnancy outcome worldwide, which imposes significant psychological and economic consequences to mothers and affected families. East African countries accoun...

    Authors: Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Koku Sisay Tamirat and Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:414

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In the African region, 5.6% of pregnancies are estimated to be complicated by preeclampsia and 2.9% by eclampsia, with almost one in ten maternal deaths being associated with hypertensive disorders. In Sierra ...

    Authors: N. Stitterich, J. Shepherd, M. M. Koroma and S. Theuring

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:413

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Placental malaria (PM) poses life-threatening complications to pregnant women as they are at increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. This study examined the fa...

    Authors: Pascal Kingsley Mwin, Afreh Kuffuor, Kaamel Nuhu, Rafiq Okine, Chrysantus Kubio, Frederick Wurapa, Francis Adjei Osei and Edwin Afari

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:403

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Caesarean sections without medical indication cause substantial maternal and perinatal ill-health, particularly in low-income countries where surgery is often less safe. In presence of adequate labour monitori...

    Authors: Wouter Bakker, Elisabeth van Dorp, Misheck Kazembe, Alfred Nkotola, Jos van Roosmalen and Thomas van den Akker

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:398

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Ethiopia has one of the highest rates of infant mortality in the world. Utilization of maternal healthcare during pregnancy, at delivery, and after delivery is critical to reducing the risk of infant mortality...

    Authors: Girmay Tsegay Kiross, Catherine Chojenta, Daniel Barker and Deborah Loxton

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:390

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Maternal Death Reviews (MDR) can assist in formulating prevention strategies to reduce maternal mortality. To support MDR, an adequate MDR instrument is required to accurately identify the underlying causes of...

    Authors: Ratnasari D. Cahyanti, Widyawati Widyawati and Mohammad Hakimi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:380

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Neonatal mortality accounts for more than 47% of deaths among children under five globally but proper care at and around the time of birth could prevent about two-thirds of these deaths. The Every Newborn Acti...

    Authors: Fariba Mirbaha-Hashemi, Batool Tayefi, Zahra Rampisheh, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Mozhdeh Ramezani, Narjes Khalili, Omid Pournik, Rahim Taghizadeh-Asl, Abbas Habibelahi, Mohammad Heidarzadeh and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has minimized infant HIV acquisition, and over 1 million infants are born HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), with an increasing proportion al...

    Authors: Dorothy C. Nyemba, Emma Kalk, Hlengiwe P. Madlala, Thokozile R. Malaba, Amy L. Slogrove, Mary-Ann Davies, Andrew Boulle, Landon Myer and Kathleen M. Powis

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Yoga can reduce the risk of preterm delivery, cesarean section (CS), and fetal death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Yoga on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes.

    Authors: Leili Yekefallah, Peyman Namdar, Leila Dehghankar, Fereshteh Golestaneh, Soghra Taheri and Frahnaz Mohammadkhaniha

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Globally, infant mortality has declined considerably but has remained unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa, especially Nigeria where infant mortality rate is 67/1000 live births. To facilitate infant mortal...

    Authors: Mobolaji Modinat Salawu, Rotimi Felix Afolabi, Babatunde Makinde Gbadebo, Adetokunbo Taophic Salawu, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe and Ayo Stephen Adebowale

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:345

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The aim of this study was to explore and measure the social and economic consequences of the costs of obstetric and neonatal care in Lubumbashi, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Authors: Musau Nkola Angèle, Ntambue Mukengeshayi Abel, Omewatu Mungomba Jacques, Mundongo Tshamba Henri and Malonga Kaj Françoise

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Having a companion of choice throughout childbirth is an important component of good quality and respectful maternity care for women and has become standard in many countries. However, there are only a few exa...

    Authors: Paul Chaote, Nguke Mwakatundu, Sunday Dominico, Alex Mputa, Agnes Mbanza, Magdalena Metta, Samantha Lobis, Michelle Dynes, Selemani Mbuyita, Shanon McNab, Karen Schmidt and Florina Serbanescu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Vacuum-assisted birth is not widely practiced in Tanzania but efforts to re-introduce the procedure suggest some success. Few studies have targeted childbirth attendants to learn how their perceptions of and t...

    Authors: Sunday Dominico, Mkambu Kasanga, Nguke Mwakatundu, Paul Chaote, Samantha Lobis and Patricia E. Bailey

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research article

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  27. India has the highest number of stillbirths and the highest neonatal death rate in the world. In the context of its pronatalist society, women who experience perinatal loss often encounter significant social r...

    Authors: Lisa Roberts, Solomon J. Renati, Shreeletha Solomon and Susanne Montgomery

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:292

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Despite 15–17 millions of annual births in China, there is a paucity of information on prevalence and outcome of preterm birth. We characterized the outcome of preterm births and hospitalized preterm infants b...

    Authors: Xiaojing Guo, Xiaoqiong Li, Tingting Qi, Zhaojun Pan, Xiaoqin Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Dong, Hongni Yue and Bo Sun

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:291

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:373

  29. Research suggests that women’s experience of antenatal care is an important component of high-quality antenatal care. Person-centered antenatal care (PCANC) reflects care that is both respectful of, and respon...

    Authors: Phoebe Miller, Patience A. Afulani, Sabine Musange, Felix Sayingoza and Dilys Walker

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:290

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In most of the sub-Sahara African countries, use of herbal medications is widely practiced during pregnancy or delivery for various reasons despite uncertainties on their pharmacological profiles. Use of unreg...

    Authors: Anna Tengia-Kessy and George Chombe Msalale

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a significant contributor to the high maternal mortality rate in Indonesia. At the moment, limited guidelines are available to assist primary care providers in man...

    Authors: Fitriana Murriya Ekawati, Sharon Licqurish, Jane Gunn, Shaun Brennecke and Phyllis Lau

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:269

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the main causes of medical complication of pregnancy and is the main cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. It is one of the top causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Also ...

    Authors: Awol Yemane, Hale Teka, Sumeya Ahmed, Haftom Temesgen and Elizabeth Langen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health problem both in developed and developing countries with huge consequences to maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. However, there is limited evidence on the prev...

    Authors: Misganaw Gebrie Worku, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Yigizie Yeshaw

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Monochorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies are rare. Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in monochorionic triplet pregnancies is extremely rare, and it is associated with high perinatal morbidity and m...

    Authors: Guiqiong Huang, Hua Liao, Qing Hu, Xiaodong Wang and Haiyan Yu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:245

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Induction of labor is an artificial initiation of uterine contractions after fetal viability with the aim of vaginal delivery prior to the onset of spontaneous labor. Prevalence of induction of labor is increa...

    Authors: Tibeb Zena Debele, Endeshaw Admassu Cherkos, Marta Berta Badi, Kiber Temesgen Anteneh, Fitsum Wolde Demssie, Abdella Amano Abdo and Muhabaw Shumye Mihret

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Emergency cesarean section is a commonly performed surgical procedure in pregnant women with life-threatening conditions of the mother and/or fetus. According to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologis...

    Authors: Tebabere Moltot Kitaw, Simachew Kassa Limenh, Fantahun Alemnew Chekole, Simegnew Asmer Getie, Belete Negese Gemeda and Abayneh Shewangzaw Engda

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Most post-licensure vaccine pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are passive reporting systems. These have limited utility for maternal immunization pharmacovigilance in LMIC settings ...

    Authors: Mabel Berrueta, Agustin Ciapponi, Ariel Bardach, Federico Rodriguez Cairoli, Fabricio J. Castellano, Xu Xiong, Andy Stergachis, Sabra Zaraa, Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen and Pierre Buekens

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Antenatal care (ANC) provides an opportunity to prevent, identify and intervene maternal health problems. Maternal near miss (MNM), as an indicator of maternal health, is increasingly gaining global attention ...

    Authors: Tayue Tateke Kebede, Wanzahun Godana, Mesfin Mamo Utaile and Yemisirach Berhanu Sebsibe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Stillbirth is defined as fetal loss in pregnancy beyond 28 weeks by WHO. In this study, a machine-learning based method is proposed to predict stillbirth from livebirth and discriminate stillbirth before and d...

    Authors: Toktam Khatibi, Elham Hanifi, Mohammad Mehdi Sepehri and Leila Allahqoli

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In November 2016, the WHO four-visit focused antenatal care (FANC) model adopted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was reverted to eight contacts or more as a response to reducing the global perinatal and maternal d...

    Authors: Yusuf Olushola Kareem, Imran Oludare Morhason-Bello, Funmilola M. OlaOlorun and Sanni Yaya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Despite the growing global application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in maternal and child health, contextual factors, and mechanisms by which interventional outcomes are generated, have not been subje...

    Authors: Eveline M. Kabongo, Ferdinand C. Mukumbang, Peter Delobelle and Edward Nicol

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Globally, 4 million infants die in their first 4weeks of life every year; above 8 million infants died before their first year of birthday, and nearly 10 million children died before their 5th birthday. Majori...

    Authors: Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Ayele Mamo Abebe, Biruk Beletew Abate, Seteamlak Adane Masresha, Ayelign Mengesha Kassie and Molalign Aligaz Adisu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of poor mental health and intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health disorders have been consistently associated with suboptimal HIV-related outcomes. Little is ...

    Authors: Angela M. Parcesepe, Evette Cordoba, John A. Gallis, Jennifer Headley, Berenger Tchatchou, John Hembling, Claudian Soffo and Joy Noel Baumgartner

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hospital-based kangaroo mother care can help reduce preventable newborn deaths and has been recommended by the World Health Organization in the care of low birthweight babies weighing 2000 g or less. However, ...

    Authors: Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Tamanda Hiwa, Kelly Pickerill, Marianne Vidler, Queen Dube, David Goldfarb, Alinane Linda Nyondo-Mipando and Kondwani Kawaza

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound is essential in making decisions on the time and mode of delivery. There are many proposed formulas for fetal weight estimation such as Hadlock 1, Hadlock 2, H...

    Authors: Senai Goitom Sereke, Richard Okello Omara, Felix Bongomin, Sarah Nakubulwa and Harriet Nalubega Kisembo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

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  46. It is challenging to decrease neonatal mortality in middle-income countries, where perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of death. This study aims to analyze the annual trend of neonatal mortality with peri...

    Authors: Mandira D. Kawakami, Adriana Sanudo, Mônica L. P. Teixeira, Solange Andreoni, Josiane Q. X. de Castro, Bernadette Waldvogel, Ruth Guinsburg and Maria Fernanda de Almeida

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women contribute about 25% of all infections and are among the most frequent clinical bacterial infections. Pregnancy changes in women that include anatomical, physi...

    Authors: Bahati Johnson, Bawakanya Mayanja Stephen, Ngonzi Joseph, Owaraganise Asiphas, Kayondo Musa and Kabanda Taseera

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is transmitted from mother to child which can be prevented via birth dose vaccine combined with three follow up hepatitis B vaccines, hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG), and maternal an...

    Authors: Marieke Bierhoff, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Marcus J. Rijken, Kanlaya Sriprawa, Pachinee Kobphan, Francois N. Nosten, Michèle van Vugt, Rose McGready and Angela Devine

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  49. Focused antenatal care is directed at sustaining maternal health and improving fetal wellbeing to ensure birth of a healthy neonate. Failure to implement focused antenatal care can result in inability to reduc...

    Authors: Asressie Molla Tessema, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Solomon Mekonnen, Kassahun Alemu and Zemene Tigabu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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