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Pregnancy and childbirth in low and middle income countries

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth in the developing world.

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  1. For every maternal death, 20 to 30 women are estimated to have morbidities related to pregnancy or childbirth. Much of this burden of disease is in women in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal multimorb...

    Authors: Mary McCauley, Shamsa Zafar and Nynke van den Broek

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:637

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Delayed health-seeking continues to contribute to preventable maternal and neonatal deaths in low resource countries. Some of the strategies to avoid the delay include early preparation for the birth and detec...

    Authors: James Orwa, Samwel Maina Gatimu, Michaela Mantel, Stanley Luchters, Michael A. Mugerwa, Sharon Brownie, Leonard Subi, Secilia Mrema, Lucy Nyaga, Grace Edwards, Loveluck Mwasha, Kahabi Isangula, Edna Selestine, Sofia Jadavji, Rachel Pell, Columba Mbekenga…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:636

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The diagnosis of hyperglycaemia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is challenging. Blood glucose levels obtained during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may not reflect home glycaemic profiles. We compare OGTT resu...

    Authors: J. M. Milln, E. Walugembe, S. Ssentayi, H. Nkabura, A. G. Jones and M. J. Nyirenda

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:635

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Having a birth attendant with midwifery skills during childbirth is an effective intervention to reduce maternal and early neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, many women in Ethiopia still deliver a...

    Authors: Biruhtesfa Bekele Shiferaw and Lebitsi Maud Modiba

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:633

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Maternal death related to obstetric complications remains a great challenge in developing countries. Since these complications are not consistently predictable, it is important to plan different preventive app...

    Authors: Teshale Abosie Ananche and Legesse Tadesse Wodajo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:631

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify maternal demographic and antenatal factors associat...

    Authors: Prakash M. Jeena, Kareshma Asharam, Aweke A. Mitku, Pragalathan Naidoo and Rajen N. Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:628

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of public health. Early childbearing is not only characterized as a physical body experience but also emb...

    Authors: Desiree Govender, Saloshni Naidoo and Myra Taylor

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:620

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Pre-existing maternal cardiac disease is a significant contributor to adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. In 2015–2017, our team conducted the first community-based study of maternal rheumatic hear...

    Authors: Sonia Voleti, Emmy Okello, Meghna Murali, Rachel Sarnacki, Albert Majwala, Renny Ssembatya, Olivia Bakka, Henriator Namisanvu, Angela Njeri, Alphonsus Matovu, Kristen DeStigter, Craig Sable and Andrea Beaton

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:611

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Evidence suggests appearance of socioeconomic gradient in the probability of low birth weight (LBW). Such evidence, however, is scanty in Ethiopia. The study aimed to examine the prevalence of and socioeconomi...

    Authors: Gebretsadik Shibre and Mulugeta Tamire

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:608

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pregnancy tests can be used for the early diagnosis of fetal problems and can prevent abnormal birth in pregnancies. Yet, testing preferences among Chinese women are poorly investigated.

    Authors: Liangzhi Wu, Yanxin Wu, Shiqian Zou, Cong Sun, Junyu Chen, Xueyan Li, Zihang Lin, Lizhi Guan, Qing Zeng, Sihan Zhao, Jingtong Liang, Rui Chen, Zhiwen Hu, Kingyan Au, Daipeng Xie, Xiaomin Xiao…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:604

    Content type: Research article

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  11. This study aims to explore the stories of three women from Zanzibar, Tanzania, who survived life-threatening obstetric complications. Their narratives will increase understanding of the individual and communit...

    Authors: Tanneke Herklots, Suhaila Salum Yussuf, Khairat Said Mbarouk, Molly O’Meara, Emma Carson, Sebastiaan Beschoor Plug, Fleur van Acht, Pleun Terpstra, Deja Prebevšek, Arie Franx, Tarek Meguid and Benoit Jacod

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:594

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Stillbirth is an adverse pregnancy outcome of public health importance causing considerable psychosocial burden on parents and their family. Studies on stillbirth are scarce in southern Ethiopia. An assessment...

    Authors: Sintayehu Mengesha and Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:591

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Globally, delayed childbearing to the advanced age is a growing option. It is an emerging public health issue in developing countries. Currently, adverse perinatal outcomes significantly increased. A few studi...

    Authors: Abera Mersha, Gistane Ayele, Tilahun Worku, Zerihun Zerdo, Shitaye Shibiru, Agegnehu Bante and Tamiru Chonka

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:590

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Newborns delivered in healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income countries are at an increased risk of healthcare associated infections. Facility–based studies have focused primarily on healthcare worker ...

    Authors: Yolisa Nalule, Helen Buxton, Erin Flynn, Olutunde Oluyinka, Stephen Sara, Oliver Cumming and Robert Dreibelbis

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:589

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Reducing maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) remain an important public health issue in Egypt. The three delays model distinguished three phases of delay to be associated with maternal mortality: 1) first phase d...

    Authors: Mo’men M. Mohammed, Saad El Gelany, Ahmed Rida Eladwy, Essam Ibrahium Ali, Mohamed T. Gadelrab, Emad M. Ibrahim, Eissa M. Khalifa, Ahmed K. Abdelhakium, Hashem Fares, Ayman M. Yousef, Heba Hassan, Khaled Goma, Mahmoud H. Ibrahim, Alaa Gamal, Mohamed Khairy, Ahmed Shaban…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:585

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a competency-based educational method for an evidence-based protocol to manage birth asphyxia in low resource settings. HBB has been shown to improve health worker skills and ne...

    Authors: Jacqueline Umunyana, Felix Sayinzoga, Jim Ricca, Rachel Favero, Marcel Manariyo, Assumpta Kayinamura, Edwin Tayebwa, Neena Khadka, Yordanos Molla and Young-Mi Kim

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:583

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The worldwide incidence of birth by Caesarean Section (CS) is rising. Many births after a previous CS are by repeat surgery, either by an elective CS or after a failed trial of labour. Adhesion formation is as...

    Authors: R. Mooij, I. H. Mwampagatwa, J. van Dillen and J. Stekelenburg

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:582

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Determining anthropometric measures that indicate different fat deposits can be useful to predict metabolic risk and set specific treatment goals, reducing negative consequences for maternal and fetal health. ...

    Authors: Daniela Cortés Kretzer, Salete Matos, Lisia Von Diemen, José Antônio de Azevedo Magalhães, Alice Carvalhal Schöffel, Marcelo Zubaran Goldani, Alexandre da Silva Rocha and Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:576

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In order to provide appropriate and adequate care to women who have experienced termination of pregnancy due to fetal anomalies, the health needs of this group should be assessed. Considering the lack of infor...

    Authors: Bahareh Kamranpour, Mahnaz Noroozi and Masoud Bahrami

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:573

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Despite reaching Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 3, the maternal mortality rate (MMR) is still high in Rwanda. Most deaths occur after transfer of patients with obstetric complications from district hospital...

    Authors: Eugene Tuyishime, Honorine Ingabire, Jean Paul Mvukiyehe, Marcel Durieux and Theogene Twagirumugabe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:568

    Content type: Research article

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  21. High maternal mortality ratios remain a critical public health concern in Ghana. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR), which is a component of focused antenatal care, is a safe motherhood stra...

    Authors: Cynthia Klobodu, Brandy-Joe Milliron, Kofi Agyabeng, Patricia Akweongo and Augustine Adomah-Afari

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:566

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Maternal, infant and neonatal mortality rates are high in Bangladesh. Certain childbearing practices and poor utilisation of antenatal care services make Bangladeshi women more vulnerable to experience poor he...

    Authors: Sumaiya Abedin and Dharma Arunachalam

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:555

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Three-quarters of pregnancy terminations in Africa are carried out in unsafe conditions. Unsafe abortion is the leading cause of maternal mortality among 15–24 year-old women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Greater und...

    Authors: Franklin I. Onukwugha, Monica A. Magadi, Ahmed M. Sarki and Lesley Smith

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:550

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Nausea and vomiting are experienced by a majority of pregnant women worldwide. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding their impact on birth outcomes and few studies have examined this rela...

    Authors: Amanda Regodón Wallin, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Luke C Mullany, Janet A Englund, Helen Chu, Steven C LeClerq and Joanne Katz

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Sustainable Development Goal 3 aims at reducing global neonatal mortality to at least 12 per 1000 livebirths, under-five mortality to at least 25 per 1000 livebirths and maternal mortality ratio to less than 7...

    Authors: Robert Kaba Alhassan, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Evelyn Korkor Ansah, Margaret Gyapong, Anthony Ashinyo, Mary Eyram Ashinyo, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, Edem Akorli-Adzimah and Edith Ekpor

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:543

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Despite recent improvements in child survival, neonatal mortality continues to decline at a slower rate and now represents 47% of under-five deaths globally. The World Health Organization developed core indica...

    Authors: Emily Bryce, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, James M. Tielsch, Steven C. LeClerq and Joanne Katz

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:540

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Factors associated with low birth weight at term (TLBW), a proxy for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), are not well-elucidated in socioeconomically vulnerable populations. This study aimed to identify th...

    Authors: Ila R. Falcão, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Marcia F. de Almeida, Rosemeire L. Fiaccone, Aline dos S. Rocha, Naiá Ortelan, Natanael J. Silva, Enny S. Paixao, Maria Yury Ichihara, Laura C. Rodrigues and Mauricio L. Barreto

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Nigeria is the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, with one of the highest neonatal mortality rates and the second highest number of neonatal deaths in the world. There is broad international consensus on w...

    Authors: Jamie Perin, Alain K. Koffi, Henry D. Kalter, Joseph Monehin, Adeyinka Adewemimo, John Quinley and Robert E. Black

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:534

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Accurately estimating gestational age is essential to the provision of time-sensitive maternal and neonatal interventions, including lifesaving measures for imminent preterm birth and trimester-specific health...

    Authors: K. Scott, S. Gupta, E. Williams, M. Arthur, U. V. Somayajulu and L. Noguchi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:529

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Skilled attendance at delivery is a key marker for reducing maternal mortality. Effective community engagement strategies complemented by community health worker (CHW) services can improve access to maternal h...

    Authors: Anbrasi Edward, Aparna Krishnan, Grace Ettyang, Younghee Jung, Henry B. Perry, Annette E. Ghee and Jane Chege

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:514

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Good quality antenatal care visits are crucial to reduce maternal mortality and improve overall maternal and neonatal health outcomes. A previous study on antenatal care visits analyzed the nationally represen...

    Authors: Mukesh Adhikari, Binaya Chalise, Bihungum Bista, Achyut Raj Pandey and Dipak Prasad Upadhyaya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:513

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In India, preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains one of the foremost challenge in community health. Countrywide MTCT of HIV is estimated to be > 10,000 an...

    Authors: Mihir Bhatta, Nalok Dutta, Srijita Nandi, Shanta Dutta and Malay Kumar Saha

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:509

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Preconception care has the potential to reduce maternal and child morbidities and mortalities. It is a window of opportunity to timely alter or eliminate risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, d...

    Authors: Firanbon Teshome, Yohannes Kebede, Fira Abamecha and Zewdie Birhanu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:504

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Delivery in a facility with a skilled health provider is considered the most important intervention to reduce maternal and early newborn deaths. Providing care close to people’s homes is an important strategy ...

    Authors: Paul Mubiri, Darious Kajjo, Monica Okuga, Tanya Marchant, Stefan Peterson, Peter Waiswa and Claudia Hanson

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:497

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Thrombotic microangiopathy is associated with HELLP syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) during pregnancy. Standard laboratory and physical examinations c...

    Authors: Marc Tshilanda, Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye, Céline Tendobi and Freddy Mbuyi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:495

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Ultrasound scanning during the 2nd or the 3rd trimester of pregnancy for fetal size disturbances screening is heavily dependent of the choice of the reference chart. This study aimed to assess the agreement of...

    Authors: Biébo Bihoun, Serge Henri Zango, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Innocent Valea, Raffaella Ravinetto, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D’Alessandro, Halidou Tinto and Annie Robert

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:492

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Pregnancy is one of the most important periods of any woman’s life, wherein the support of her relatives, especially her spouse, enables her to tolerate the difficulties with good memories. However, in Iran, t...

    Authors: Nahid Mehran, Sepideh Hajian, Masoumeh Simbar and Hamid Alavi Majd

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:489

    Content type: Research article

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  38. To date, there is limited evidence on the effect of antenatal exposure to non-organophosphate household pesticides on infant health. Our hypothesis is that antenatal exposure to non-organophosphate household p...

    Authors: Frida Soesanti, Nikmah S. Idris, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Aryono Hendarto, Diederick E. Grobbee and Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:476

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Mothers’ delivery care satisfaction is one of the indicators to monitor the quality of health care provision. However, there is only limited information in this regard in Ethiopia, particularly in the study ar...

    Authors: Hanna Franco Karoni, Getasew Mulat Bantie, Muluken Azage, Ayele Semachew Kasa, Amare Alamirew Aynie and Gebiyaw Wudie Tsegaye

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:473

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Fear of childbirth is a common health concern for women during pregnancy. The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) is widely used to measure childbirth fear during pregnancy. However, thi...

    Authors: Madalitso Khwepeya, Hui-Chuan Huang, Gabrielle T. Lee and Shu-Yu Kuo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:455

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Antenatal care (ANC) and delivery by skilled providers have been well recognized as effective strategies to prevent maternal and neonatal mortality. ANC and delivery services at health facilities, however, hav...

    Authors: Mitsuaki Hirai, Jamae Morris, Jill Luoto, Rosebel Ouda, Nancy Atieno and Robert Quick

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:453

    Content type: Research article

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  42. India has focused on incentivizing institutional delivery and introducing the ASHA worker as a key strategy to improve maternal health outcomes. We examined the determinants of institutional delivery and the r...

    Authors: Pooja L. Paul and Shanta Pandey

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:445

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect around the world. Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor of CHDs, but the relationship of CHD risk with over- and unde...

    Authors: Xuelian Yuan, Zhen Liu, Jun Zhu, Ping Yu, Ying Deng, Xinlin Chen, Nana Li, Shengli Li, Shuihua Yang, Jun Li, Hanmin Liu and Xiaohong Li

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:444

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In low transmission settings early diagnosis is the main strategy to reduce adverse outcomes of malaria in pregnancy; however, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are inadequate for detecting low-dens...

    Authors: A. M. Vásquez, G. Vélez, A. Medina, E. Serra-Casas, A. Campillo, I. J. Gonzalez, S. C. Murphy, A. M. Seilie, X. C. Ding and A. Tobón Castaño

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:440

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Globally, 15 million infants are born preterm each year, and 1 million die due to complications of prematurity. Over 60% of preterm births occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Care at birth for prematur...

    Authors: Eleanor J. Mitchell, Santosh Benjamin, Sam Ononge, James Ditai, Zahida Qureshi, Shabeen Naz Masood, Diane Whitham, Peter J. Godolphin and Lelia Duley

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  46. To evaluate the association between delays in obstetric care and neonatal near-miss mortality events and death in a public maternity referral center.

    Authors: Ocilia Maria Costa Carvalho, Antônio Brazil Viana Junior, Matheus Costa Carvalho Augusto, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro Leite, Rivianny Arrais Nobre, Olivia Andrea Alencar Costa Bessa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Fernanda Nogueira Barbosa Lopes and Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:437

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Perinatal mortality remains a problem in Ethiopia. Findings of primary studies varied on level of perinatal mortality and its predictors including inter-pregnancy interval. The aim of this review was to estima...

    Authors: Belayneh Hamdela Jena, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye and Yigzaw Kebede Gete

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Globally perinatal and maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high. There is increasing evidence that simulation-based training in obstetric emergencies is associated with improvement in clinical outcome...

    Authors: A. A. C. van Tetering, A. van Meurs, P. Ntuyo, M. B. van der Hout-van der Jagt, L.G.M. Mulders, B. Nolens, I. Namagambe, A. Nakimuli, J. Byamugisha and S. G. Oei

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:429

    Content type: Study protocol

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