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Pregnancy and childbirth in low and middle income countries

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth in the developing world.

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  1. Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequat...

    Authors: Danish Ahmad, Itismita Mohanty, Avishek Hazra and Theo Niyonsenga

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Childbirth is a complex process, and checklists are useful tools to remember steps of such complex processes. The World Health Organization safe childbirth checklist is a tool used to improve the quality of care ...

    Authors: Hailemariam Segni Abawollo, Zergu Tafesse Tsegaye, Binyam Fekadu Desta, Tsega Teferi Mamo, Haregewoin Getachew Mamo, Zebyderu Tesfay Mehari, Zenawork Kassa Gebremedhin and Ismael Ali Beshir

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  3. COVID-19 caused some worries among pregnant women. Worries during pregnancy can affect women’s well-being. We investigated worry and well-being and associated factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 p...

    Authors: Forough Mortazavi, Maryam Mehrabadi and Roya KiaeeTabar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Cesarean section (CS) is a rising public health issue globally, and is particularly serious in China. Numerous studies have suggested that gestational weight gain (GWG) control may be an effective way to reduc...

    Authors: Lujiao Huang, Ju Zhang, Hong Sun, Hongli Dong, Run Li, Congjie Cai, Yan Gao, Cheng Wu, Xi Lan and Guo Zeng

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Referral and clinical decision-making support are important for reducing delays in reaching and receiving appropriate and quality care. This paper presents analysis of the use of a pilot referral and decision ...

    Authors: Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah, Irene Akua Agyepong, Edith Frimpong, Marjolein Zweekhorst and Linda Amarkai Vanotoo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To examine the association between the Apgar score and neonatal mortality over gestational age in China and to explore whether this association changed when Apgar scores were combined at 1 and 5 min.

    Authors: Yi Mu, Mingrong Li, Jun Zhu, Yanping Wang, Aiyun Xing, Zheng Liu, Yanxia Xie, Xiaodong Wang and Juan Liang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Fragile and conflict-affected states contribute with more than 60% of the global burden of maternal mortality. There is an alarming need for research exploring maternal health service access and quality and ad...

    Authors: Josephine Obel, Antonio Isidro Carrion Martin, Abdul Wasay Mullahzada, Ronald Kremer and Nanna Maaløe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Preterm birth is defined as the birth of a baby before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Worldwide, prematurity is the second foremost cause of death in children under the age of 5 years. Preterm birth also giv...

    Authors: Negeso Gebeyehu Gejo, Melaku Tesfaye W/mariam, Biruk Assefa Kebede, Ritbano Ahmed Abdo, Abebe Alemu Anshebo, Hassen Mosa Halil, Biruktawit Fekade Woldu and Nuradin Abusha Katiso

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Most previous studies conducted in non-Middle Eastern populations have suggested that an increase in the number of parity/live birth(s) leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, although their finding...

    Authors: Seyyed Saeed Moazzeni, Hossein Toreyhi, Samaneh Asgari, Fereidoun Azizi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani and Farzad Hadaegh

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Globally, approximately 15 million babies are born preterm every year. Complications of prematurity are the leading cause of under-five mortality. There is overwhelming evidence from low, middle, and high-inco...

    Authors: Selamawit Mengesha Bilal, Henok Tadele, Teshome Abuka Abebo, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Mekonnen Muleta, Fitsum W/Gebriel, Akalewold Alemayehu, Yusuf Haji, Dejene Hailu Kassa, Ayalew Astatkie, Anteneh Asefa, Million Teshome, Aknaw Kawza, Shemels Wangoro, Thomas Brune, Nalini Singhal…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Unlike infant and child mortality, neonatal mortality has declined steadily in Ethiopia. Despite the large-scale investment made by Ethiopia to improve the health of newborns and infants, it is among the regio...

    Authors: Getayeneh Antehunegn and Misganaw Gebrie Worku

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Per UNICEF’s Nurturing Care Framework, early childhood development (ECD) begins during pregnancy and many lower-resource settings need data to inform their programs for optimal child development. The maternal-...

    Authors: Jessica Mackness, John A. Gallis, Raymond Kofi Owusu, Mohammed Ali, Safiyatu Abubakr-Bibilazu, Haliq Adam, Raymond Aborigo, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Margaret Lillie, Elena McEwan, John Hembling, Lavanya Vasudevan and Joy Noel Baumgartner

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Women’s empowerment, and maternal and neonatal health are important targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. Our objective is to examine the relationship between women’s empowerment and elective cesarean ...

    Authors: Myriam de Loenzien, Quoc Nhu Hung Mac and Alexandre Dumont

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Globally, maternal health remains a major priority. Most of maternal deaths globally occur in sub-Saharan Africa, with most of these deaths linked to lack of access to antenatal care and skilled assistance dur...

    Authors: Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Ebenezer Agbaglo, Collins Adu, Eugene Budu, John Elvis Hagan Jr, Thomas Schack and Sanni Yaya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:2

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Pregnancy is a stress test of maternal thyroid function. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is high. Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs in 10% of all pregnancies. Effects of hypothyroidism ...

    Authors: Kalpana Mahadik, Payal Choudhary and P. K. Roy

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:769

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cesarean section (CS) is an important indicator of access to, and quality of maternal health services. The World Health Organization recommends the Robson ten group classification system as a global standard f...

    Authors: Ferid A. Abubeker, Biruck Gashawbeza, Thomas Mekuria Gebre, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alula M. Teklu, Demis Degu and Delayehu Bekele

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:767

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Men’s participation in perinatal care is one of the key factors in promoting maternal and neonatal health. The effects of various methods of training on men’s knowledge and attitude about participation in peri...

    Authors: Vahideh Firouzan, Mahnaz Noroozi, Mojgan Mirghafourvand and Ziba Farajzadegan

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:765

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Pakistan is among those countries where the number of caesarean section births has increased unusually in the past two decades. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse the trend of caesarean sect...

    Authors: Aaisha Amjad, Abeeha Imran, Nabeeha Shahram, Rubeena Zakar, Ahmed Usman, Muhammad Zakria Zakar and Florian Fischer

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:753

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Sacrococcygeal teratoma is one of the most common congenital tumors in newborns and infancy. The incidence is 1 per 20,000–40,000 live births. Ultrasonography is an optimal method for prenatal screening and di...

    Authors: Qing Hu, Yiyun Yan, Hua Liao, Hongyan Liu, Haiyan Yu and Fumin Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:751

    Content type: Case report

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  20. High blood pressure (BP) late in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery (PTD); BP has also been associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART), but whether the relationship between BP assessed lon...

    Authors: Thokozile R. Malaba, Annibale Cois, Hlengiwe P. Madlala, Mushi Matjila, Landon Myer and Marie-Louise Newell

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:742

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Studies on medication-related problems (MRPs) among pregnant women are scarce, despite the potential consequences for both mother and child. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, clinical significance, ...

    Authors: Seid Mussa Ahmed, Johanne Sundby, Yesuf Ahmed Aragaw and Hedvig Nordeng

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:737

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Engaging community health workers in a formalised death review process through verbal and social autopsy has been utilised in different settings to estimate the burden and causes of mortality, where civil regi...

    Authors: Jude Igumbor, Olatunji Adetokunboh, Jocelyn Muller, Edna N. Bosire, Ademola Ajuwon, Rene Phetlhu, Marjorie Mbule, Agnes Ronan, Fiona Burtt, Esca Scheepers and Kathrin Schmitz

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:736

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Studies on uptake of first dose of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) are lacking, despite it being a predictor of subsequent doses. This study aimed at assessing the determinants of uptake ...

    Authors: Ahmed Dahiru Balami, Salmiah Md. Said, Nor Afiah Mohd. Zulkefli, Norsa’adah Bachok and Bala Audu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:726

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Although under-5 mortality has decreased in the last two decades, neonatal mortality remains a global health challenge. Despite achieving notable progress, Ethiopia has still one of the highest neonatal mortal...

    Authors: Francesco Cavallin, Teresa Bonasia, Desalegn Abebe Yimer, Fabio Manenti, Giovanni Putoto and Daniele Trevisanuto

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:722

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been related to vitamin D binding protein (GC) gene polymorphism, demographics and lifestyle factors in different populations. However, previous studies only focused on demographic ...

    Authors: Siew-Siew Lee, King-Hwa Ling, Maiza Tusimin, Raman Subramaniam, Kartini Farah Rahim and Su-Peng Loh

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:714

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Delays in accessing skilled delivery services are a major contributor to high maternal mortality in resource-limited settings. In 2015, the government of The Gambia initiated a results-based financing interven...

    Authors: Laura Ferguson, Rifat Hasan, Chantelle Boudreaux, Hannah Thomas, Mariama Jallow and Günther Fink

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:712

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Poor women in hard-to-reach areas are least likely to receive healthcare and thus carry the burden of maternal and perinatal mortality from complications of childbirth. This study evaluated the effect of an en...

    Authors: Duncan N. Shikuku, Geofrey Tanui, Mercy Wabomba, Dennis Wanjala, Josephine Friday, Taphroze Peru, Evelyne Atamba and Kenneth Sisimwo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:708

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Maternal undernutrition is highly prevalent in underdeveloped countries. Hence, this study was intended to determine the prevalence and associated factors of undernutrition among pregnant women visiting ANC cl...

    Authors: Mohammed Muze, Mubarek Yesse, Shemsu Kedir and Abdilmejid Mustefa

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:707

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Adolescent pregnancy is a public health concern in Malawi as it is associated with high risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Almost 29% of adolescent women aged 15–19 years are already mothers and adolescent f...

    Authors: Lucy Ida Kululanga, Alice Kadango, Gaily Lungu, Diana Jere, Matthews Ngwale and Lily Caroline Kumbani

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:699

    Content type: Research article

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  30. To identify risk factors associated with a composite adverse maternal outcomes in women undergoing intrapartum cesarean birth.

    Authors: Margo S. Harrison, Ana Pilar Betrán, Krithika Suresh, Joshua P. Vogel, Robert L. Goldenberg and A. Metin Gülmezoglu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:687

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Adequate antenatal care (ANC) services are key for early identification of pregnancy related risk factors and maintaining women’s health during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the influence of ANC provid...

    Authors: G. K. Baldewsingh, B. C. Jubitana, E. D. van Eer, A. Shankar, A. D. Hindori-Mohangoo, H. H. Covert, L. Shi, M. Y. Lichtveld and C. W. R. Zijlmans

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:683

    Content type: Research article

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  32. sub-Saharan African Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries (sSA LLMICs) have the highest burden of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the world. Timely and appropriate maternal referral to a suit...

    Authors: Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Carolyne Njue, Nguyen Toan Tran and Angela Dawson

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:682

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In developing countries, abortion is often unsafe and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality accounting for about 8% (4.7–13.2%) of maternal mortality worldwide. Internationally, safe abortion...

    Authors: Mihretu Molla Enyew

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:676

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Fear of childbirth is one of the life challenges the women encounter during pregnancy. It is an important source of distress for the women and their families and also increases the odds of obstetric complicati...

    Authors: Tiruset Gelaw, Teklemariam Gultie Ketema, Kassaw Beyene, Mekdes Kondale Gurara and Gebresilasea Gendisha Ukke

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:672

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The recent use of antenatal care (ANC) has steadily improved in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but postnatal care (PNC) has been widely underutilized. Most maternal and newborn deaths occur during th...

    Authors: Medge D. Owen, Elizabeth Colburn, Cecilia Tetteh and Emmanuel K. Srofenyoh

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:664

    Content type: Research article

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  36. More than one third of the neonatal deaths at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Debre Tabor General Hospital (DTGH) are attributable to birth asphyxia. Most of these neonates are referred from the materni...

    Authors: Wubet Alebachew Bayih, Getachew Yideg Yitbarek, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Biruk Beletew Abate, Aragaw Tesfaw, Metadel Yibeltal Ayalew, Demeke Mesfin Belay, Habtamu Shimelis Hailemeskel and Abebaw Yeshambel Alemu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:653

    Content type: Research article

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  37. For every maternal death, 20 to 30 women are estimated to have morbidities related to pregnancy or childbirth. Much of this burden of disease is in women in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal multimorb...

    Authors: Mary McCauley, Shamsa Zafar and Nynke van den Broek

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:637

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Delayed health-seeking continues to contribute to preventable maternal and neonatal deaths in low resource countries. Some of the strategies to avoid the delay include early preparation for the birth and detec...

    Authors: James Orwa, Samwel Maina Gatimu, Michaela Mantel, Stanley Luchters, Michael A. Mugerwa, Sharon Brownie, Leonard Subi, Secilia Mrema, Lucy Nyaga, Grace Edwards, Loveluck Mwasha, Kahabi Isangula, Edna Selestine, Sofia Jadavji, Rachel Pell, Columba Mbekenga…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:636

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The diagnosis of hyperglycaemia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is challenging. Blood glucose levels obtained during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may not reflect home glycaemic profiles. We compare OGTT resu...

    Authors: J. M. Milln, E. Walugembe, S. Ssentayi, H. Nkabura, A. G. Jones and M. J. Nyirenda

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:635

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Having a birth attendant with midwifery skills during childbirth is an effective intervention to reduce maternal and early neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, many women in Ethiopia still deliver a...

    Authors: Biruhtesfa Bekele Shiferaw and Lebitsi Maud Modiba

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:633

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Maternal death related to obstetric complications remains a great challenge in developing countries. Since these complications are not consistently predictable, it is important to plan different preventive app...

    Authors: Teshale Abosie Ananche and Legesse Tadesse Wodajo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:631

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify maternal demographic and antenatal factors associat...

    Authors: Prakash M. Jeena, Kareshma Asharam, Aweke A. Mitku, Pragalathan Naidoo and Rajen N. Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:628

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of public health. Early childbearing is not only characterized as a physical body experience but also emb...

    Authors: Desiree Govender, Saloshni Naidoo and Myra Taylor

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:620

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Pre-existing maternal cardiac disease is a significant contributor to adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. In 2015–2017, our team conducted the first community-based study of maternal rheumatic hear...

    Authors: Sonia Voleti, Emmy Okello, Meghna Murali, Rachel Sarnacki, Albert Majwala, Renny Ssembatya, Olivia Bakka, Henriator Namisanvu, Angela Njeri, Alphonsus Matovu, Kristen DeStigter, Craig Sable and Andrea Beaton

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:611

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Evidence suggests appearance of socioeconomic gradient in the probability of low birth weight (LBW). Such evidence, however, is scanty in Ethiopia. The study aimed to examine the prevalence of and socioeconomi...

    Authors: Gebretsadik Shibre and Mulugeta Tamire

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:608

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Pregnancy tests can be used for the early diagnosis of fetal problems and can prevent abnormal birth in pregnancies. Yet, testing preferences among Chinese women are poorly investigated.

    Authors: Liangzhi Wu, Yanxin Wu, Shiqian Zou, Cong Sun, Junyu Chen, Xueyan Li, Zihang Lin, Lizhi Guan, Qing Zeng, Sihan Zhao, Jingtong Liang, Rui Chen, Zhiwen Hu, Kingyan Au, Daipeng Xie, Xiaomin Xiao…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:604

    Content type: Research article

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  47. This study aims to explore the stories of three women from Zanzibar, Tanzania, who survived life-threatening obstetric complications. Their narratives will increase understanding of the individual and communit...

    Authors: Tanneke Herklots, Suhaila Salum Yussuf, Khairat Said Mbarouk, Molly O’Meara, Emma Carson, Sebastiaan Beschoor Plug, Fleur van Acht, Pleun Terpstra, Deja Prebevšek, Arie Franx, Tarek Meguid and Benoit Jacod

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2020 20:594

    Content type: Research article

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