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Labor, delivery, and postpartum health

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of labor, birth, and postpartum health, including labor induction, mode of delivery, fetal monitoring, hemorrhage, uterine rupture, obstetric fistula, perineal tears, and all other aspects of labor, birth, and postpartum health.

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  1. Safe childbirth remains a daunting challenge, particularly in low-middle income countries, where most pregnancy-related deaths occur. Cameroon’s maternal mortality rate, estimated at 529 per 100,000 live birth...

    Authors: Julius Sama Dohbit, Namanou Ines Emma Woks, Carlin Héméry Koudjine, Willy Tafen, Pascal Foumane, Assumpta Lucienne Bella, Rosemary Nkemdilim Ogu and Fru Fobuzshi Angwafo III

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:497

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Performing exercise with medium intensity has positive effects on the maternal health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise program during pregnancy on childbirth outc...

    Authors: Nasim Yousefi Ghandali, Mina Iravani, Abdolhamid Habibi and Bahman Cheraghian

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:480

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ) is the only specific instrument designed to evaluate pain and activity limitations in pregnant or postpartum women with pelvic girdle pain (PGP). This study aimed to trans...

    Authors: Hui Cong, Heng Liu, Yin Sun, Jinsong Gao, Juntao Liu, Liangkun Ma, Britt Stuge and Lixia Chen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:470

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In this study, we aimed to determine whether epidural analgesia affects the indications for intrapartum caesarean delivery, such as foetal distress, dystocia, or maternal request, in nulliparous term women wit...

    Authors: Rong Lin, Peng Shi, Haibing Li, Zhiqiang Liu and Zhendong Xu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:464

    Content type: Research article

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  5. After childbirth, most women do not lose the extra weight gained during pregnancy. This is important because postnatal weight retention contributes to the development of obesity in later life. Research shows t...

    Authors: Natalie Tyldesley-Marshall, Sheila M Greenfield, Helen M Parretti, Kate Jolly, Susan Jebb and Amanda J Daley

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:462

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Up to 50 % of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will receive a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a decade after pregnancy. While excess postpartum weight retention exacerbates T2...

    Authors: Briana J. Stith, Samantha M. Buls, Sarah A. Keim, Stephen F. Thung, Mark A. Klebanoff, Mark B. Landon, Steven G. Gabbe, Kajal K. Gandhi and Reena Oza-Frank

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:461

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Preterm birth is the most common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Tocolytics are considered a standard treatment for women with threatened preterm delivery to allow time for maternal steroid administ...

    Authors: Mohammed H. Ibrahim, Tahani Elfaki, Elhassan M. Elhassan, Somia K. Abdelrahiem and Ishag Adam

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:457

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Partographs should be used universally to monitor the mother and fetus’s conditions during delivery. However, its application in different parts of the world, including Ethiopia, is inconsistent. Moreover, its...

    Authors: Abel Girma Tilahun, Dawit Getachew Gebeyehu, Yayehyirad Yemaneh Adinew and Fekede Woldekidan Mengstu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:404

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A high rate of cesarean delivery has become a cause of global concern. Although the rate of cesarean delivery has declined over recent years, it remains at a high level largely because of cesarean delivery on ...

    Authors: Ruibin Deng, Xian Tang, Jiaxiu Liu, Yuwen Gao and Xiaoni Zhong

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:384

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and its incidence is increasing in many countries despite management guidelines. A national quality improvement programme calle...

    Authors: Sarah F. Bell, Rachel E. Collis, Philip Pallmann, Christopher Bailey, Kathryn James, Miriam John, Kevin Kelly, Thomas Kitchen, Cerys Scarr, Adam Watkins, Tracey Edey, Elinore Macgillivray, Kathryn Greaves, Ingrid Volikas, James Tozer, Niladri Sengupta…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Diagnosis of preterm labour is difficult because initial symptoms and signs are often mild and may occur in continuing pregnancies. This study aims to investigate the utility of measuring cervical length, usin...

    Authors: Tiffany Tuck Chin Wong, Xiaoqi Yong, Janice Su Zhen Tung, Beatrice Jia Ying Lee, Joanne Mei Xin Chan, Ruochen Du, Tai Wai Yeo and George Seow Heong Yeo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) introduced a new standard of care in 2014, extending the duration of the second stage of labor in order to reduce caesarean delivery (CD) rates an...

    Authors: G. Gitas, L. Proppe, A. K. Ertan, S. Baum, A. Rody, M. Kocaer, K. Dinas, L. Allahqoli, A. S. Laganà, A. Sotiriadis, S. Sommer and I. Alkatout

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:356

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Although labor induction is a commonly used procedure in obstetrical care, there are limited data on its psycho-emotional effects on the woman. This study analysed the expectations and experiences of women in ...

    Authors: Moa Strandberg, Tove Wallstrom and Eva Wiberg-Itzel

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:355

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a multifactorial condition with a partly unknown etiology. This condition can be mentally and physically compromising both during and after pregnancy. To provide all-around preventi...

    Authors: Tang Xiangsheng, Gong Long, Shi Yingying, An Xiao, Yi Ping and Tan Mingsheng

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:353

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries, and is the most common direct cause of maternal deaths in Madagascar. Studies in Madagascar and other low-income ...

    Authors: Sara V. Flanagan, Tina Razafinamanana, Charlotte Warren and Jana Smith

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In 2017, a total of 295,000 women lost their lives due to pregnancy and childbirth across the globe, with sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia accounting for approximately 86 % of all maternal deaths. The materna...

    Authors: Peter Adatara, Philemon Adoliwine Amooba, Agani Afaya, Solomon Mohammed Salia, Mabel Apaanye Avane, Anthony Kuug, Raymond Saa-Eru Maalman, Confidence Alorse Atakro, Irene Torshie Attachie and Constancia Atachie

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:287

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Routine assessment in (near) term pregnancy is often inaccurate for the identification of fetuses who are mild to moderately compromised due to placental insufficiency and are at risk of adverse outcomes, espe...

    Authors: Stefanie E. Damhuis, Wessel Ganzevoort, Ruben G. Duijnhoven, Henk Groen, Sailesh Kumar, Alexander E. P. Heazell, Asma Khalil and Sanne J. Gordijn

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:285

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes in pregnant women with liver cirrhosis, and identify the predictors of adverse events of mother and fetus.

    Authors: Xiang Gao, Yunxia Zhu, Haixia Liu, Hongwei Yu and Ming Wang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:280

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:325

  19. To determine whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19 disease) exposure in pregnancy, compared to non-exposure, is associated with infection-related obstetric ...

    Authors: Oscar Martinez-Perez, Pilar Prats Rodriguez, Marta Muner Hernandez, Maria Begoña Encinas Pardilla, Noelia Perez Perez, Maria Rosa Vila Hernandez, Ana Villalba Yarza, Olga Nieto Velasco, Pablo Guillermo Del Barrio Fernandez, Laura Forcen Acebal, Carmen Maria Orizales Lago, Alicia Martinez Varea, Begoña Muñoz Abellana, Maria Suarez Arana, Laura Fuentes Ricoy, Clara Martinez Diago…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:273

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The preferable choice of anesthesia for the patients with congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (CAAD) and type I Arnold Chiari malformations (ACM-I) has been a very confusing issue in clinical practice. We desc...

    Authors: Yuyan Nie, Weimin Zhou and Shaoqiang Huang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:272

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  21. Retained placenta represents a cause of maternal morbidity and mortality affecting 0.5–3% of all vaginal deliveries. The unpredictability of this condition makes difficult to develop predictive and preventive ...

    Authors: Alessandro Favilli, Valentina Tosto, Margherita Ceccobelli, Fabio Parazzini, Massimo Franchi, Vittorio Bini and Sandro Gerli

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:268

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Waterbirth is widely available in English maternity settings for women who are not at increased risk of complications during labour. Immersion in water during labour is associated with a number of maternal ben...

    Authors: H. Aughey, J. Jardine, N. Moitt, K. Fearon, J. Hawdon, D. Pasupathy, I. Urganci and T. Harris

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:388

  23. We aimed at developing a core outcome and variables of interest set to investigate the effects of mediolateral episiotomy on Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury (OASI) during and after operative delivery in nullip...

    Authors: Bertrand Gachon, Thomas Schmitz, France Artzner, Olivier Parant, Renaud De Tayrac, Guillaume Ducarme, Camille Le Ray, Anne Cécile Pizzoferrato, Charles Garabedian, Didier Riethmuller, Fabrice Pierre, Stephanie Ragot and Xavier Fritel

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:251

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Chorioamnionitis may cause serious perinatal and neonatal adverse outcomes, and group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most common bacteria isolated from human chorioamnionitis. The present study analyzed t...

    Authors: Jie Ren, Zhe Qiang, Yuan-yuan Li and Jun-na Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Due to the lack of effective treatments for COVID-19, it becomes imperative to assess the geographical differences and trends...

    Authors: Pallavi Dubey, Bhaskar Thakur, Sireesha Reddy, Carla A. Martinez, Md Nurunnabi, Sharron L. Manuel, Sadhana Chheda, Christina Bracamontes and Alok K. Dwivedi

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Caesarean section rates are higher among pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to spontaneous conceptions (SC), implying an increase in neonatal and maternal morbidity. We ai...

    Authors: Nakeisha A. Lodge-Tulloch, Flavia T. S. Elias, Jessica Pudwell, Laura Gaudet, Mark Walker, Graeme N. Smith and Maria P. Velez

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Fear of childbirth is reported in 13% of fathers, and it may have adverse consequences for the fathers’ health as well as their families. To reduce the fear of childbirth in the expectant fathers, an appropria...

    Authors: Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghaffari, Hamid Sharif Nia, Forouzan Elyasi, Zohreh Shahhosseini and Zohre Mohammadpoorsaravimozafar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:222

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:319

  28. Prevalence of neonatal microcephaly in populations without Zika-epidemics is sparse. The study aimed to report baseline prevalence of congenital microcephaly and its relationship with prenatal factors in an ar...

    Authors: Songying Shen, Wanqing Xiao, Lifang Zhang, Jinhua Lu, Anna Funk, Jianrong He, Si Tu, Jia Yu, Li Yang, Arnaud Fontanet, Wei Bao, Kar Keung Cheng and Xiu Qiu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:214

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest neonatal mortality rate, with Uganda reporting 20 deaths per 1000 live births. The Uganda Clinical Guidelines (UCG) from 2016 have detailed descriptions on car...

    Authors: Marte Bodil Roed, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv Engebretsen and Robert Mangeni

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Low and mid station vacuum assisted deliveries (VAD) are delicate manual procedures that entail a high degree of subjectivity from the operator and are associated with adverse neonatal outcome. Little has been...

    Authors: Stefhanie Romero, Kristina Pettersson, Khurram Yousaf, Magnus Westgren and Gunilla Ajne

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Labor pain during childbirth can have devastating effects on the progress of labor, mother, and fetus. Consequently, the management of labor pain is crucial for the well-being of the mother and fetus. Transcut...

    Authors: Anne Njogu, Si Qin, Yujie Chen, Lizhen Hu and Yang Luo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goal target 3.1, the World Health Organisation recommends that all pregnant women receive antenatal care (ANC) from skilled providers, utilise the services of a skilled b...

    Authors: Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Kwamena Sekyi Dickson and Kenneth Setorwu Adde

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Low risk pregnancy ending in a vaginal birth is best served and guided by a midwife. Utilizing a midwife in such cases offers many emotional and economic advantages and does not increase the risks for mother o...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Tengteng Li, Nafei Guo, Hui Jiang, Yuehong Li, Chenying Xu and Xiao Yao

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Women in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality during childbirth globally. Despite increases in facility-based childbirth, gaps in quality of care at facilities have limited redu...

    Authors: Adeline A. Boatin, Joseph Ngonzi, Blair J. Wylie, Henry M. Lugobe, Lisa M. Bebell, Godfrey Mugyenyi, Sudi Mohamed, Kenia Martinez, Nicholas Musinguzi, Christina Psaros, Joshua P. Metlay and Jessica E. Haberer

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:124

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. We aimed to evaluate the association of isolated fetal microcephaly measured by ultrasound prior to delivery at term with mode of delivery and perinatal outcome.

    Authors: Ron Bardin, Eyal Krispin, Lina Salman, Inbal Navon, Anat Shmueli, Sharon Perlman, Yinon Gilboa and Eran Hadar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. This retrospective study aimed to identify possible intensification of mental health difficulties among women seeking support in the postpartum period during the epidemic state in Poland. We assumed that the e...

    Authors: Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś, Tamara Walczak-Kozłowska and Małgorzata Lipowska

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  37. This study aimed to explore women’s views on the acceptability of different techniques for managing an impacted fetal head at caesarean; and the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a trial in this area.

    Authors: Gabriella Romano, Eleanor Mitchell, Rachel Plachcinski, Natalie Wakefield, Kate Walker and Susan Ayers

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:103

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A bicornuate uterus often results in infertility. While reconstructive procedures may facilitate pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or serious pregnancy complications may occur. We present a case of a bicornuate ...

    Authors: Chengyan Zhang, Xiaoxin Wang, Haili Jiang, Lei Hou and Liying Zou

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:95

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Preterm birth is a major challenge in obstetric and perinatal care. It is the leading cause of neonatal death. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral dydrogesterone on latency perio...

    Authors: Suparudeewan Thongchan and Vorapong Phupong

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. As the birth policy has been adjusted from one-child-one-couple to universal two-child-one-couple in China, there is an increasing number of women undergoing a second pregnancy after a previous cesarean sectio...

    Authors: Zhong-chen Luo, Xu Liu, Anni Wang, Jian-qiong Li, Ze-hong Zheng, Sun Guiyu, Ting Lou, Jin Pang and Xiao-ling Bai

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is widely used as the alternative choice for pregnant women at high-risk of fetal aneuploidy. However, whether NIPS has a good detective efficiency for pregnant women at ...

    Authors: Hui Zhu, Xiaoxiao Jin, Yuqing Xu, Weihua Zhang, Xiaodan Liu, Jinglei Jin, Yeqing Qian and Minyue Dong

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Challenges with engaging in postnatal physical activity can negatively affect the health of women and their families. This study investigated women’s physical activity decision-making processes and strategies ...

    Authors: Sarah Jane Liva, Wendy Anne Hall and John Oliffe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:81

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. This was a retrospective population-based study, utilizing the data of 601 247 singleton hospital deliveries collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (MBR) in 2006–2016. The aim of this study was to a...

    Authors: Riitta Vilkko, Sari Räisänen, Mika Gissler, Vedran Stefanovic and Seppo Heinonen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Pruritus is one of the most common side effects of epidural morphine administered for post-surgery analgesia, and pregnant women tend to be highly susceptible. The relative contributions of morphine concentrat...

    Authors: Xinyi Tian, Kaifan Niu, Hong Cao, Gonghao Zhan, Yan Zhang, Feng Xu, Wangning Shangguan and Ye Gao

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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