Skip to main content

Table 3 Maternal demographic and pregnancy characteristics in women who had recurrent stillbirths compared to those who did not have recurrent stillbirth (i.e. had two live births or a stillbirth followed by a live birth)

From: Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in Zimbabwe – a cross sectional study

Singleton Pregnancy Population Characteristics Recurrent Stillbirths
No (n = 1695) Yes (n = 39)
Maternal Age (years) Mean (SD) 26.8 (6.6) 27.7 (6.9)
BMI during pregnancy Mean (SD) 28.4 (5.0) 27.6 (5.5)
Unknown 437 19
Gestational Age at Birth (weeks) Mean (SD) 38.6 (2.3) 35.7 (3.5)
Unknown 170 6
Gravidity Mean (SD) 2.4 (1.4) 2.9 (1.1)
Median [IQR] 2.0 [1–3] 3.0 [2–4]
Parity Mean (SD) 1.2 (1.3) 1.8 (1.1)
Median [IQR] 2.0 [1–3] 1.0 [1–2]
Nulliparous No 1092/1695 (64.4%) 39/39 (100.0%)
Yes 603/1695 (35.6%) 0/39 (0.0%)
History of Stillbirth No 1666/1695 (98.3%) 0/39 (0.0%)
Yes 29/1695 (1.7%) 39/39 (100.0%)
Stillbirth No 1691/1695 (99.8%) 0/39 (0.0%)
Yes 4/1695 (0.2%) 39/39 (100.0%)
Education None or Primary 135/1349 (10.0%) 4/22 (18.2%)
Secondary 1133/1349 (84.0%) 16/22 (72.7%)
Tertiary or Voc. 81/1349 (6.0%) 2/22 (9.1%)
Unknown 346 17
Married No 330/1546 (21.3%) 6/37 (16.2%)
Yes 1216/1546 (78.7%) 31/37 (83.8%)
Unknown 149 2
Formal Employment No 1200/1346 (89.2%) 21/23 (91.3%)
Yes 146/1346 (10.8%) 2/23 (8.7%)
Unknown 349 16
HIV No 1200/1346 (89.2%) 21/23 (91.3%)
Yes 146/1346 (10.8%) 2/23 (8.7%)
Unknown 349 16
Syphilis during pregnancy No 1525/1583 (96.3%) 29/33 (87.9%)
Yes 58/1583 (3.7%) 4/33 (12.1%)
Unknown 112 6
Anaemia No 1524/1559 (97.8%) 29/32 (90.6%)
Yes 35/1559 (2.2%) 3/32 (9.4%)
Unknown 136 7
Tetanus Vaccination No 49/1557 (3.1%) 4/30 (13.3%)
Yes 1508/1557 (96.9%) 26/30 (86.7%)
Unknown 138 9
Any Antenatal Care No 112/1695 (6.6%) 8/39 (20.5%)
Yes 1583/1695 (93.4%) 31/39 (79.5%)
Number of ANC visits > 4 533/1507 (35.4%) 6/31 (19.4%)
1–4 862/1507 (57.2%) 17/31 (54.8%)
None 112/1507 (7.4%) 8/31 (25.8%)
Unknown 188 8
First Trimester antenatal care No 1254/1278 (98.1%) 23/23 (100.0%)
Yes 24/1278 (1.9%) 0/23 (0.0%)
Unknown 417 16
Level of nearest care Basic EmOC 552/1626 (34.0%) 12/35 (34.3%)
Home Delivery. or First Aid 5/1626 (0.2%) 0/35 (0.0%)
Comp. EmOC 1069/1626 (65.8%) 23/35 (65.7%)
Unknown 69 4
Distance home to nearest health facility (minutes) < 30 419/427 (98.1%) 6/7 (85.7%)
31–60 3/427 (0.7%) 1/7 (14.3%)
61–119 3/427 (0.7%) 0/7 (0.0%)
120+ 2/427 (0.5%) 0/7 (0.0%)
Unknown 1268 32
Distance home to referral hospital (minutes) < 30 981/1011 (97.0%) 20/20 (100.0%)
31–60 19/1011 (1.9%) 0/20 (0.0%)
61–119 9/1011 (0.9%) 0/20 (0.0%)
120+ 2/1011 (0.2%) 0/20 (0.0%)
Unknown 684 19
Ambulance Use No 1358/1595 (85.1%) 26/36 (72.2%)
Yes 237/1595 (14.9%) 10/36 (27.8%)
Unknown 100 3
Severe Maternal Complications No 1425/1649 (86.4%) 17/32 (53.1%)
Yes 224/1649 (13.6%) 15/32 (46.9%)
Unknown 46 7
Placental Abnormalities No 1412/1428 (98.9%) 6/29 (20.7%)
Yes 16/1428 (1.1%) 23/29 (79.3%)
Unknown 267 10
Fetal Heartbeat on Admission No 23/1686 (1.4%) 31/35 (88.6%)
Yes 1663/1686 (98.6%) 4/35 (11.4%)
Unknown 9 4
Reduced Fetal Movement No 1647/1689 (97.5%) 6/25 (24.0%)
Yes 42/1689 (2.5%) 19/25 (76.0%)
Unknown 6 14
Last Reported Fetal Movement Before Admission 37/1687 (2.2%) 26/32 (81.2%)
In Hospital 1650/1687 (97.8%) 6/32 (18.8%)
Unknown 8 7
Mode of Delivery SVD 1202/1695 (70.9%) 24/39 (61.5%)
C-Section 481/1695 (28.4%) 14/39 (35.9%)
Other 12/1695 (0.7%) 1/39 (2.6%)
Type of Stillbirth Fresh 0/4 (0.0%) 8/38 (21.1%)
Skin changes present 4/4 (100.0%) 30/38 (78.9%)
Unknown 0 1
Reported Cause of Stillbirth PE/Eclampsia/PIH 0/4 (0.0%) 2/39 (5.1%)
Uterine Rupture 0/4 (0.0%) 2/39 (5.1%)
Cord Prolapse 0/4 (0.0%) 2/39 (5.1%)
APH 1/4 (25.0%) 2/39 (5.1%)
Unexplained 3/4 (75.0%) 31/39 (79.5%)