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Table 1 Characteristics of 12 randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions in pregnant women

From: Universal prevention of distress aimed at pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological interventions

Author Year Country Intervention type Outcome(s) Delivery method Control Nsess Inclusion of partner Timing intervention Npat Risk of bias
Akbarzadeh 2016 Iran Psychoeducation Anxiety (STAI) Group CAU 4 Yes Prenatal 126 couples High
Beattie et al. 2017 Australia Mindfulness Stress (PSS-10); Depression (EPDS) Group CAU (Pregnancy Support Program) 8 No Prenatal 48 women Low
Daley-McCoy et al. 2015 England Psychoeducation Depression (EPDS) Group CAU 1 Yes Prenatal 63 couples (70 women and 65 men) Some concerns
Feinberg & Kan 2008 United States CBT Depression (CES-D); Anxiety (TMAS) Group CAU (+ child care brochure) 8 Yes Mixed (4 postnatal sessions) 169 couples Some concerns
Gao et al. 2010 China IPT Depression (EPDS; GHQ) Group (prenatal)/ Individual (postpartum phone call) CAU 3 No Mixed (1 postnatal session) 194 women Some concerns
Haga et al. 2019 Norway Multimodal Depression (EPDS) Individual (10-min online self-help sessions) CAU 44 No Mixed (11 prenatal sessions) 1342 women Some concerns
Khorsandi et al. 2016 Iran CBT Stress (PSS-14) Group WL 8 No Prenatal 64 women Some concerns
Mao et al. 2012 China CBT Depression (PHQ-9; EPDS) Group/Individual (1 coaching session) CAU 5 No Prenatal 240 women Low
Matvienko-Sikar & Dockray 2017 Ireland Mindfulness Stress (PDS); Depression (EPDS) Self-help CAU 11 No Prenatal 46 women High
Milgrom et al. 2011 Australia Psychoeducation Depression (BDI-II); Anxiety (DASS); Stress (DASS) Self-help (workbook)/individual (phone) CAU (+ intervention workbook after study) 8 No Mixed (1 postnatal session) 143 women Some concerns
Ramezani et al. 2017 Iran CBT Depression (Austin Inventory; EPDS) Group AI (solution-focused counselling) + CAU 4 No Prenatal 85 women High
Woolhouse et al. 2014 Australia Mindfulness Depression (CES-D; DASS); Anxiety (STAI; DASS); Stress (PSS; DASS) Group CAU • 6 No Prenatal 32 women Some concerns
  1. Abbreviations. BDI Beck Depression Inventory; depression; CAU care as usual; CBT cognitive behavioural therapy; CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies, Depression Scale; DASS Depression Anxiety Stress scales short form; EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; HADS-D Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; GHQ General Health Questionnaire; LQ Leverton Questionnaire; IPT Interpersonal psychotherapy; N pat number of patients; Nsess number of sessions; PDS Prenatal Distress Scale; PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire; POMS Profile of Mood States (Depression / dejection scale); PSS Perceived Stress Scale; SH self-help; STAI State and Trait Anxiety Inventory; TMAS – Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale; WL – waiting list.