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Table 2 Reproductive health outcomes regressed on adverse childhood experiences

From: Adverse childhood experiences and poor birth outcomes in a diverse, low-income sample

  Any pregnancy loss (n = 1848) Any preterm birth (n = 1823) Any low birthweight (n = 1837)
Model 1 OR (95% CI) Model 2 OR (95% CI) Model 1 OR (95% CI) Model 2 OR (95% CI) Model 1 OR (95% CI) Model 2 OR (95% CI)
Age 1.07** (1.05–1.09) 1.07** (1.05–1.08) 1.08** (1.05–1.10) 1.08** (1.05–1.10) 1.06** (1.03–1.08) 1.06** (1.03–1.08)
Race/Ethnicity1
 American Indian 0.65 (0.41–1.02) 0.66 (0.42–1.04) 0.63 (0.35–1.12) 0.64 (0.36–1.14) 0.53 (0.28–1.00) 0.55 (0.29–1.03)
 Caucasian 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 0.83 (0.60–1.16) 0.85 (0.61–1.19) 0.60* (0.42–0.85) 0.61* (0.43–0.87)
 Hispanic 0.70* (0.51–0.96) 0.69* (0.51–0.95) 0.51* (0.34–0.77) 0.51* (0.34–0.77) 0.49* (0.32–0.74) 0.48 (0.32–0.74)
 Other race/ethnicity 0.65 (0.37–1.12) 0.63 (0.36–1.09) 0.67 (0.34–1.32) 0.67 (0.34–1.31) 0.75 (0.38–1.47) 0.73 (0.37–1.42)
Any postsecondary education 1.05 (0.83–1.32) 1.05 (0.83–1.32) 0.73* (0.54–0.99) 0.73* (0.54–0.98) 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 0.84 (0.61–1.16)
Total ACE score 1.12** (1.08–1.17)   1.07** (1.01–1.12)   1.08** (1.03–1.15)  
1 or 2 ACEs   0.93 (0.66–1.31)   1.22 (0.79–1.89)   0.98 (0.62–1.56)
3 or 4 ACEs   1.27 (0.89–1.80)   1.29 (0.82–2.02)   1.22 (0.76–1.96)
5 or more ACEs   1.80** (1.28–2.52)   1.46 (0.95–2.26)   1.39 (0.88–2.19)
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI Confidence interval. *p < .05; **p < .01