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Table 1 Sample Characteristics (N = 1848)

From: Adverse childhood experiences and poor birth outcomes in a diverse, low-income sample

Study Measures Mean (SD) or n (%)
Demographic Characteristics
 Age 25.5 (5.9)
 Any postsecondary education 549 (29.7)
Race/Ethnicity
 American Indian 131 (7.1)
 Caucasian 760 (41.1)
 African American 444 (24.0)
 Hispanic 428 (23.2)
 Other race/ethnicity 91 (4.9)
Adverse Childhood Experiences
 Total ACE score 3.2 (2.6)
 0 ACEs 288 (15.6%)
 1 or 2 ACEs 557 (30.1%)
 3 or 4 ACEs 453 (24.5%)
 5 or more ACEs 550 (29.8%)
Outcomes
 Any pregnancy loss 505 (27.3%)
 Any preterm birth (>  3 weeks early) 270 (14.8%)
 Any low birthweight (<  5.5 pounds) 220 (12.0%)
  1. Abbreviation: ACE Adverse childhood experience