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Table 7 Factors associated with pregnancy loss/ perinatal mortality among women attending ANC

From: Maternal perceptions about caesarean section deliveries and their role in reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality in the Upper West Region of Ghana; a cross-sectional study

Maternal characteristics Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% Confidence interval P-Value
Age of Pregnant woman in years
 19 and below   
 20–24 2.7 1.0 – 7.7 0.05
 25–29 3.2 1.2–8.8 0.02
 30–34 5.1 1.8–14.4 < 0.005
 35 and above 5.3 1.9–15.9 < 0.005
Number of times pregnant (gravidity)
 Two and below   
 Three 8.4 4.3–16.3 < 0.001
 Four 14.3 7.2–28.3 < 0.001
 Five and above 15.7 6.8–36.4 < 0.001
Number of children (Parity)
 Zero – one   
 Two and above 1.9 1.2–3.0 0.005
History of previous caesarean section
 No previous caesarean section    
 Positive history of previous caesarean section 4.6 2.7–7.8 < 0.001
Having traditional or cultural belief against having caesarean section
 No traditional or cultural belief   
 Have a traditional or cultural belief 3.2 1.3–7.9 0.01
Preference of planned caesarean section versus vaginal delivery
 Prefer planned caesarean section   
 Prefer Spontaneous vaginal delivery 0.4 0.2–0.8 0.005
Study site: Currently attending Antenatal clinic in a regional versus district hospital
 Regional (Upper West regional hospital, Wa)   
 District (St Joseph’s hospital, Jirapa) 0.4 0.2–0.6 < 0.001
Form of anaesthesia used in the previous caesarean section
 Spinal Anaesthesia   
 General Anaesthesia 0.2 0.05–0.9 0.04