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Table 2 Pregnant women’s sanitation access and use with unadjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes

From: Effects of sanitation practices on adverse pregnancy outcomes in India: a conducive finding from recent Indian demographic health survey

Characteristics Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval
Lower limit Upper limit
Access to toilet
 No access® 1   
 In house 0.77*** 0.748 0.792
 Shared toilet 0.93*** 0.899 0.972
Type of Toilet
 No toilet® 1   
 Flush toilet 0.80*** 0.776 0.822
 Pit latrine 0.75*** 0.713 0.787
 Other 0.97 0.921 1.024
Availability of water
 No availability® 1   
 Available 0.87*** 0.842 0.901
Availability of hand wash
 No availability® 1   
 Available 0.88*** 0.861 0.908
  1. ***p < 0.01, **p < .05, *p < 0.1