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Table 3 Risk factors for BV

From: Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in the middle belt of Ghana

  BV Status OR (Unadjusted) P-value AOR (Adjusted) P-value for AOR
Yes n (%) No n (%)
Age group
< 19 36 (46.2) 42 (53.8) 1.0   1.0  
 20–34 128 (30.3) 294 (69.7) 0.51 (0.31–0.83) 0.007 0.93 (0.51–1.68) 0.802
 35+ 18 (20.2) 71 (79.8) 0.30 (0.14–0.59) < 0.001 1.02 (0.42–2.43) 0.969
Marital Status
 Married 103 (25.5) 301 (74.5) 1.0   1.0  
 Single 45 (46.4) 52 (53.6) 2.53 (1.60–4.00) < 0.001 1.60 (0.94–2.71) 0.083
 Cohabiting 34 (38.6) 54 (61.4) 1.84 (1.13–2.99) 0.014 1.41 (0.84–2.35) 0.189
Religion
 Christians 127 (32.7) 261 (67.3) 1.0   
 Muslim 48 (26.0) 137 (74.0) 0.72 (0.48–1.06) 0.100
 Others 7 (43.7) 9 (56.3) 1.60 (0.58–4.39) 0.363
Education
 No education 52 (24.6) 159 (75.4) 1.0   1.0  
 Primary & JHS 110 (35.6) 199 (64.4) 1.69 (1.14–2.50) 0.008 1.17 (0.76–1.79) 0.473
> SHS 20 (71.0) 49 (29.0) 1.24 (0.68–2.29) 0.474 0.80 (0.41–1.55) 0.503
Occupation
 Unemployed 84 (37.7) 139 (62.3) 1.0   1.0  
 Employed 98 (26.8) 268 (73.2) 1.65 (1.16–2.36) 0.006 0.98 (0.64–1.50) 0.940
Trimester
 First 31 (37.3) 52 (62.7) 1.0   1.0  
 Second 104 (32.9) 212 (67.1) 0.82 (0.50–1.36) 0.447 0.80 (0.47–1.34) 0.395
 Third 47 (24.7) 143 (75.3) 0.55 (0.32–0.96) 0.035 0.54 (0.30–0.96) 0.035
Gravidae
 Primigravidae 64 (44.4) 80 (55.6) 1.0   1.0  
 2–4 gravidae 99 (31.5) 215 (68.5) 0.58 (0.38–0.86) 0.008 0.67 (0.41–1.10) 0.114
 5 gravidae 19 (14.5) 112 (85.5) 0.21 (0.12–0.38) < 0.001 0.27 (0.13–0.58) 0.001
History of spontaneous abortion
 No 158 (32.2) 333 (67.8) 1.0   
 Yes 24 (24.5) 74 (75.5) 0.68 (0.42–1.12) 0.134
Contraceptive use before present Pregnancy
 No 139 (32.9) 283 (67.1) 1.0   
 Yes 43 (25.7) 124 (74.3) 0.71 (0.47–1.06) 0.090
Douche
 No 119 (32.1) 252 (67.9) 1.0   
 Yes 63 (28.9) 155 (71.1) 0.86 (0.60–1.24) 0.421
Antibiotic use
 No 171 (30.4) 392 (69.6) 1.0   
 Yes 11 (42.3) 15 (57.7) 1.68 (0.76–3.74) 0.202
Sex Frequency
 < 2 per week 130 (31.9) 290 (69.1) 1.0   
> 2 per week 52 (30.8) 117 (69.2) 0.99 (0.67–1.46) 0.965
Trichomoniasis
 No 179 (30.8) 402 (69.2) 1.0   
 Yes 3 (37.5) 5 (62.5) 1.35 (0.32–5.70) 0.685
Candidiasis
 No 115 (30.7) 259 (69.3) 1.0   
 Yes 67 (31.2) 148 (68.8) 1.02 (0.71–1.47) 0.917