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Table 1 Characteristics of women in the control arms of randomised trials included in the analyses

From: Gestational weight gain outside the Institute of Medicine recommendations and adverse pregnancy outcomes: analysis using individual participant data from randomised trials

Characteristics Number of studies (women) Mean (SD) or Frequency (%)
Age (years) 32 (4415) 30.1 (5.1)
Height (cm) 31 (4422) 165.0 (7.0)
Weighta (kg) 33 (4429) 77.13 (18.4)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 31 (4429) 28.32 (6.37)
Body Mass Index categories 31 (4429)  
 Healthy BMI (BMI 18.5–24.99 kg/m2)b   1622 (36.6)
 Overweight (BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2)   1245 (28.1)
 Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)   1562 (35.3)
Ethnic origin 24 (3536)  
 Caucasian   3232 (91.3)
 Non-Caucasian   304 (8.7)
Education levelc 27 (3332)  
 Basic   453 (13.6)
 Intermediate   1019 (30.6)
 Higher   1860 (55.8)
Parity 30 (4317)  
 0   2113 (49.0)
 1+   2204 (51.0)
Current smoker 27 (3964) 693 (16.5)
Inactive before pregnancyd 25 (2760) 1377 (50.1)
Family history of diabetes 10 (1784) 455 (26.2)
Hypertension at baseline 20 (2154) 53 (2.5)
Any hypertensive event in pregnancye 24 (3502) 318 (9.1)
Any case of diabetes-related eventsf 31 (4422) 448 (10.1)
Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 31 (4419) 39.6 (1.6)
  1. aEarly or pre pregnancy weight;
  2. bequivalent of Body Mass Index (BMI) termed as normal in the World Health Organization classification [20]
  3. c’low’ (secondary education completed before A-levels), ‘medium’ (secondary education to A-level equivalent) or ‘high’ (any further/higher education) for details see Table 48 in Rogozinska et al. 2017 [33]
  4. dDefined as no exercise or sedentary lifestyle prior to pregnancy for details see Table 49 in Rogozinska et al. 2017 [33]
  5. ePregnancy Induced Hypertension, high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia;
  6. fGestational Diabetes Mellitus or pre-pregnancy Diabetes Mellitus;