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Table 3 The association between water intake from different sources and dietary characteristics among pregnant women

From: Association between total water intake and dietary intake of pregnant and breastfeeding women in China: a cross-sectional survey

Variables Total water Plain water Water from beverage Water from food
β(95%CI)d Pe β(95%CI)d Pe β(95%CI)d Pe β(95%CI)d Pe
Energy (100 kcal)c 67 (48,86) < 0.001** 21 (6,36) <0.001** 12 (8,16) < 0.001** 37 (27,46) < 0.001**
Protein(5 g)cf 72 (52,91) < 0.001** 24 (9,39) <0.001** 11 (7,15) < 0.001** 39 (29,49) < 0.001**
Fat(5 g)cf 66 (42,91) < 0.001** 31 (13,48) <0.001** 13 (9,18) < 0.001** 23 (10,36) < 0.001**
Carbohydrate(5 g)cf 22 (15,29) < 0.001** 4(−1,10) 0.096 4 (2,5) < 0.001** 15 (12,18) < 0.001**
Fiber(5 g)cf 353 (283,423) < 0.001** 62(1,124) 0.048* 38 (22,54) < 0.001** 269 (247,291) < 0.001**
Na+(100 mg)cf 52 (32,73) < 0.001** 20 (5,35) <0.001** 9 (5,13) < 0.001** 24 (13,34) < 0.001**
Energy from protein (5%)c 210(6,413) 0.044* 127(−14,268) 0.078 9(−30,49) 0.641 83(−22,188) 0.120
Energy from fat (5%)c 39(−63,141) 0.449 76(7,146) 0.031* 22 (3,42) 0.025* −69(−120,-17) < 0.001**
Energy from carbohydrate (5%)c −27(−97,43) 0.449 − 51(− 99,-3) 0.038* −12(−26,1) 0.077 40 (4,75) 0.030*
  1. cThe multiple liner regression models were adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (categorized variables), working status (housewife, government employment, professionals, service, other), educational level (high school or below, college, graduate or up), physical activity (low, middle, high), and gestational weeks (first, second and third trimester) for pregnant women;
  2. dAll values represented βs (95%CI) which were associated with units of measurement given in parentheses for each independent variable (for example, when there was a 100 kcal/day increase in energy intake, TWI would increase by 67 mL, plain water intake 21 mL, water intake from beverages 12 mL, and water intake from foods 37 mL);
  3. eP Values obtained from the multiple linear regression analyses indicate the significance of the association of each independent variable with all water variables; ** P Values < 0.001; * P Values < 0.05
  4. fbesides the covariates as above mentioned, the models also included total daily energy (continuous) intake as an independent variable