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Table 3 Analysis of selected pregnancy outcomes stratified by BMI

From: Maternal body mass index and risk of neonatal adverse outcomes in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics PTB Fetal distress Neonatal asphyxia
No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value
Underweight
Sample size
 ≤ 10,000 13 0.92 (0.72–1.16) 0.344 4 1.05 (0.80–1.13) 0.505 9 1.24 (0.92–1.67)
 10,000~50,000 6 1.10 (0.99–1.22)   1 0.93 (0.77–1.12)   0 NA  
 ≥ 50,000 2 1.06 (1.00–1.12)   0 NA   0 NA  
BMI cut-off
 WHO 4 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.240 1 1.40 (0.60–3.30) 0.445 1 1.57 (0.62–3.97) 0.956
 APS 1 1.05 (0.68–1.62)   0 NA   1 0.90 (0.41–1.97)  
 WGOC 16 0.99 (0.91–1.09)   4 0.95 (0.81–1.12)   7 1.26 (0.87–1.84)  
BMI source
 Recorded 10 1.00 (0.82–1.20) 0.775 3 1.03 (0.78–1.38) 0.674 7 1.30 (0.90–1.88) 0.569
 Measured 4 1.05 (0.91–1.22)   0 NA   0 NA  
 Self-reported 4 0.92 (0.68–1.24)   1 0.93 (0.77–1.12)   0 NA  
 Questionnaire 2 1.20 (1.03–1.39)   1 1.52 (0.43–5.31)   1 1.81 (0.60–5.48)  
 Not reported 1 0.94 (0.69–1.27)   0 NA   1 0.91 (0.54–1.54)  
Language
 English 10 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 0.688 2 0.93 (0.78–1.10) 0.388 0 NA
 Chinese 11 1.04 (0.84–1.29)   3 1.14 (0.79–1.64)   9 1.24 (0.92–1.67)  
Confounders
 Adjusted 12 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.276 2 0.93 (0.78–1.10) 0.388 0 NA
 Unadjusted 9 1.12 (0.89–1.40)   3 1.14 (0.79–1.64)   9 1.24 (0.92–1.67)  
Geographic region
 North China 8 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.083 2 0.99 (0.65–1.50) 0.901 2 1.14 (0.59–2.20) 0.875
 South China 10 1.13 (0.98–1.30)   3 0.96 (0.81–1.14)   7 1.25 (0.87–1.81)  
 All 3 1.06 (1.01–1.12)   0 NA   0 NA  
Overweight/Obesity
Sample size
 ≤ 10,000 13 1.64 (1.46–1.83) < 0.001 4 0.94 (0.50–1.77) 0.869 9 1.74 (1.38–2.18)
 10,000~50,000 6 1.28 (1.13–1.45)   1 0.85 (0.60–1.19)   0 NA  
 ≥ 50,000 2 1.10 (1.05–1.15)   0 NA   0 NA  
BMI cut-off
 WHO 4 1.40 (1.14–1.79) 0.775 1 0.92 (0.44–1.92) 0.997 1 1.08 (0.49–2.39) 0.227
 APS 1 1.39 (0.78–2.49)   0 NA   1 1.42 (0.54–3.71)  
 WGOC 16 1.37 (1.23–1.54)   4 0.91 (0.54–1.52)   7 1.84 (1.44–2.34)  
BMI source
 Recorded 10 1.29 (1.14–1.47) 0.245 3 0.65 (0.49–0.86) 0.097 7 1.72 (1.32–2.24) 0.830
 Measured 4 1.24 (0.99–1.56)   0 NA   0 NA  
 Self-reported 4 1.79 (1.44–2.24)   1 0.85 (0.60–1.19)   0 NA  
 Questionnaire 2 1.42 (0.93–2.19)   1 2.63 (1.37–5.03)   1 2.76 (1.50–5.08)  
 Not reported 1 1.42 (1.01–1.99)   0 NA   1 1.11 (0.60–2.07)  
Language
 English 10 1.39 (1.23–1.56) 0.839 2 0.74 (0.56–0.98) 0.533 0 NA
 Chinese 11 1.37 (1.18–1.60)   3 1.10 (0.44–2.79)   9 1.74 (1.38–2.18)  
Confounders
 Adjusted 12 1.38 (1.23–1.55) 0.983 2 0.74 (0.56–0.98) 0.533 0 NA
 Unadjusted 9 1.46 (1.29–1.52)   3 1.10 (0.44–2.79)   9 1.74 (1.38–2.18)  
Geographic region
 North China 8 1.63 (1.41–1.88) 0.002 2 1.26 (0.31–5.07) 0.472 2 2.21 (1.19–4.09) 0.283
 South China 10 1.26 (1.12–1.41)   3 0.77 (0.59–1.01)   7 1.63 (1.26–2.09)  
 All 3 1.11 (1.06–1.16)   0 NA   0 NA  
  1. NA not available, BMI body mass index, WHO World Health Organization, APS Asia-Pacific standard, WGOC Working Group on Obesity in China, LGA large for gestational age, SGA small for gestational age, LBW low birth weight, PTB premature birth