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Table 4 Association Between Caffeine Intake and Neonatal Outcomes, n = 67,569, Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 2002–2009

From: Caffeine exposure during pregnancy, small for gestational age birth and neonatal outcome – results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

  Total caffeine intake Coffee caffeine intake Tea caffeine intake Soft drink caffeine intake Chocolate caffeine intake
  OR p-value OR p-value OR p-value OR p-value OR p-value
95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI
Unadjusted:           
Neonatal morbidity/mortality 0.93 0.01 0.93 0.01 0.89 0.14 1.03 0.73 0.37 0.01
0.89 0.98 0.88 0.98 0.77 1.04 0.88 1.19 0.17 0.79
Neonatal intervention 0.98 0.05 0.97 0.06 0.93 0.07 1.04 0.30 0.83 0.32
0.95 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.87 1.01 0.96 1.12 0.58 1.19
Adjusted:           
Neonatal morbidity/mortality 1.00 0.88 1.00 0.83 1.04 0.66 1.05 0.54 0.92 0.84
0.95 1.06 0.94 1.06 0.88 1.21 0.88 1.23 0.41 1.99
Neonatal intervention 1.02 0.07 1.02 0.25 0.99 0.85 1.08 0.05 1.51 0.03
1.00 1.05 0.99 1.05 0.91 1.07 1.00 1.17 1.03 2.19
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratios, Odds ratios for the outcomes of interest as a function of a 100-mg change in daily caffeine intake. ORs according to logistic regression, both unadjusted and adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, household income, maternal education, marital status, parity, maternal age at delivery, smoking status, presence of nausea, folic acid supplementation, planned pregnancy, baby’s sex and total energy intake. When studying different caffeine sources, analyses were mutually adjusted for caffeine sources