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Table 7 Clinical manifestations and outcomes in pregnant admissions by influenza subtype/lineage

From: Epidemiology of influenza in pregnant women hospitalized with respiratory illness in Moscow, 2012/2013–2015/2016: a hospital-based active surveillance study

  A(H1N1)pdm09 A(H3N2) B/Yamagata B/Victoria  
Manifestation/outcome N = 361 N = 224 N = 106 N = 76 P-value
Signs/symptoms, n (%)
 Fever 350 (97.0) 217 (96.9) 104 (98.1) 74 (97.4) 0.924
 Headache 209 (57.9) 110 (49.1) 48 (45.3) 52 (68.4) 0.003
 Malaise 240 (66.5) 114 (50.9) 51 (48.1) 60 (78.9) <  0.001
 Myalgia 191 (52.9) 73 (32.6) 42 (39.6) 35 (46.1) <  0.001
 Cough 296 (82.0) 155 (69.2) 77 (72.6) 66 (86.8) <  0.001
 Sore throat 215 (59.6) 160 (71.4) 71 (67.0) 56 (73.7) 0.009
 Dyspnea 65 (18.0) 9 (4.0) 5 (4.7) 5 (6.6) <  0.001
Time from onset of symptoms to admission, n (%)      <  0.001
 1 day 195 (54.0) 115 (51.3) 29 (27.4) 31 (40.8)  
 2 days 98 (27.1) 58 (25.9) 32 (30.2) 13 (17.1)  
 3 days 40 (11.1) 31 (13.8) 35 (33.0) 16 (21.1)  
  ≥ 4 days 28 (7.8) 20 (8.9) 10 (9.4) 16 (21.1)  
 Time from onset of symptoms to admission (days), median (range) 1 (0–6) 1 (0–6) 2 (0–5) 2 (0–5) <  0.001
Length of hospitalization stay, n (%) a      <  0.001
 0–4 days 124 (34.3) 61 (27.2) 22 (20.8) 26 (34.2)  
 5 days 85 (23.5) 32 (14.3) 14 (13.2) 16 (21.1)  
 6–7 days 100 (27.7) 84 (37.5) 39 (36.8) 26 (34.2)  
  ≥ 8 days 52 (14.4) 46 (20.5) 30 (28.3) 8 (10.5)  
 Length of hospitalization stay (days), median (range) 5 (0–35) 6 (0–14) 6 (1–16) 5 (0–11) <  0.001
 Admission to an intensive care unit, n (%) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.771
Pregnancy outcome, n (%)
 Abortion (<  20 weeks) 8 (2.2) 3 (1.3) 2 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 0.667
 Stillbirth (≥ 20 weeks) 2 (0.6) 3 (12.5) 4 (3.8) 2 (2.6) 0.050
 Live delivery during the current admission 31 (8.6) 24 (10.7) 14 (13.2) 4 (5.3) 0.261
 Preterm (< 37 weeks gestational age) b 9 (29.0) 4 (16.7) 1 (7.1) 2 (50.0) 0.177
 Cesarean† 3 (9.7) 6 (25.0) 2 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0.391
 Low birth weight (<  2500 g) c 1 (3.2) 1 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (25.0) 0.276
  1. aN = 223 for A(H3N2) and N = 105 for B/Yamagata
  2. bProportions are relative to deliveries