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Table 6 Adjusted estimates of risks for clinical manifestations and outcomes in pregnant admissions overall and by subtype/lineage

From: Epidemiology of influenza in pregnant women hospitalized with respiratory illness in Moscow, 2012/2013–2015/2016: a hospital-based active surveillance study

  Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) a
  Any influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 A(H3N2) B/Yamagata B/Victoria
Characteristic N = 825 N = 361 N = 224 N = 106 N = 76
Signs and symptoms
 Fever 6.34 (4.01–10.03) 5.81 (3.02–11.17) 6.36 (2.88–10.65) 11.0 (2.65–45.73) 5.56 (1.31–23.51)
 Headache 1.03 (0.84–1.25) 1.35 (1.02–1.77) 0.84 (0.62–1.14) 0.72 (0.47–1.09) 1.41 (0.83–2.40)
 Malaise 1.05 (0.86–1.29) 1.67 (1.26–2.22) 0.72 (0.53–0.98) 0.56 (0.37–0.85) 1.84 (1.01–3.33)
 Myalgia 1.83 (1.48–2.26) 2.62 (1.98–3.47) 1.16 (0.83–1.62) 1.71 (1.11–2.63) 2.12 (1.28–3.52)
 Cough 2.76 (2.13–3.43) 4.21 (3.04–5.83) 2.03 (1.47–2.82) 2.14 (1.35–3.38) 4.72 (2.35–9.45)
 Sore throat 0.64 (0.51–0.80) 0.53 (0.39–0.71) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.57 (0.36–0.89) 0.78 (0.44–1.39)
 Dyspnea 1.10 (0.78–1.54) 2.31 (1.54–3.49) 0.37 (0.18–0.77) 0.42 (0.16–1.08) 0.98 (0.37–2.63)
Days between symptom onset and admission
 Below median 1 1 1 1 1
 Median or above 1.43 (0.88–2.32) 2.06 (1.12–3.79) 1.29 (0.56–2.99) 1.15 (0.43–3.13) 0.96 (0.26–3.51)
Length of stay
 Below median 1 1 1 1 1
 Median or above 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 1.34 (1.02–176) 0.72 (0.53–0.98) 0.52 (0.34–0.80) 1.08 (0.65–1.77)
Pregnancy outcome
 Abortion 0.32 (0.16–0.64) 0.44 (0.18–1.09) 0.30 (0.09–1.05) 0.36 (0.80–1.67)
 Stillbirth 1.10 (0.47–2.59) 0.35 (0.07–1.72) 1.14 (0.30–4.35) 3 (0.87–10.28) 1.34 (0.25–7.06)
 Live delivery 0.74 (0.52–1.06) 0.78 (0.47–1.29) 0.64 (0.37–1.10) 0.90 (0.45–1.78) 0.62 (0.20–1.94)
 Preterm delivery 0.89 (0.45–1.78) 1.07 (0.45–2.56) 0.67 (0.22–2.06) 0.42 (0.05–3.31) 2.42 (0.47–2.38)
 Cesarean delivery 0.96 (0.45–2.06) 0.46 (0.12–1.70) 1.22 (0.44–3.42) 0.87 (0.18–4.07)
 Low birth weight 0.34 (0.10–1.10) 0.28 (0.03–2.13) 0.42 (0.09–2.06) 2.85 (0.29–1.07)
  1. aAdjusted for age, trimester, comorbidity, hospital admission in the previous 12 months, time to swab, and season-week