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Table 2 Intrapartum factors according to delivery route

From: Impact of obesity and other risk factors on labor dystocia in term primiparous women: a case control study

  CS (n = 296) VD (n = 302) univariate multivariable
p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI
Gestational age (days, median) 285 281 < 0.001 1.06 1.04–1.08 < 0.001 1.08 1.03–1.12
Spontaneous contractions at admission (n) 106 195 < 0.001 0.30 0.21–0.42    
PROM (n) 101 66 0.001 1.85 1.29–2.67    
IOL (PG or balloon) (n) 90 42 < 0.001 2.71 1.80–4.07    
Indication for IOL
 Postterm pregnancy 28 7       
 PROM 22 15       
 Pre-eclampsia or HT 16 7       
 Diabetes 6 6       
 LGA 7 0       
 SGA 0 2       
 Other 11 5       
Cervix dilatation at admission (mean, cm) 1.5 2.6 < 0.001 0.57 0.48–0.67 0.002 0.65 0.50–0.85
Head position in birth canal at admission (mean, cm) −2.7 −2.1 < 0.001 0.47 0.36–0.60 0.003 0.56 0.39–0.82
Chorioamnionitis (n) 95 10 < 0.001 10.9 5.01–23.6 < 0.001 21.3 6.86–65.9
Fetal malposition (n) 148 7 < 0.001 42.0 19.2–91.9 < 0.001 70.9 24.2–207
Oxytocin during labor (n) 281 220 < 0.001 6.98 3.92–12.5    
Amniotomy in labor (n) 129 148 0.183      
CTG abnormality (n) 123 12 < 0.001 17.3 9.28–32.2    
Fetal blood sample (n) 103 15 < 0.001 10.2 5.78–18.0    
Meconium-stained fluid (n) 101 40 < 0.001 3.31 2.20–5.00    
Use of IUPC (n) 202 10 < 0.001 63.4 32.2–125    
Epidural analgesia (n) 280 214 < 0.001 7.20 4.10–12.6    
PCB (n) 65 102 0.001 0.55 0.38–0.79    
Duration of delivery (mins, median) 960 620 < 0.001 1.19 1.14–1.23    
  1. PROM = premature rupture of membranes
  2. IOL = induction of labor
  3. LGA = suspected Large for Gestational Age
  4. SGA = suspected Small for Gestational Age
  5. IUPC = intrauterine pressure catheter
  6. PCB = paracervical block
  7. The multivariable p-values and ORs are from logistic regression analyses carried out among the factors related to dystocia, i.e. the first eight main factors in the table