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Table 1 The effect of demographic factors on neonatal outcomes post emergency cesarean section in Rwanda (N = 441)

From: Longer travel time to district hospital worsens neonatal outcomes: a retrospective cross-sectional study of the effect of delays in receiving emergency cesarean section in Rwanda

  Survived and APGAR ≥7 Died or APGAR <7  
  n % n % p-value
Overall 401 90.9 40 9.1 N/A
 Neonatal death - - 13 3.0 N/A
 Neonates with APGAR <7 - - 27 6.1 N/A
District hospital
 Butaro 147 91.3 14 8.7 0.47
 Kirehe 129 92.8 10 7.2
 Rwinkwavu 125 88.7 16 11.3
Woman’s age (years) (N = 436)
 15–24 163 92.6 13 7.4 0.41
 25–34 171 90.5 18 9.5
 35–44 62 87.3 9 12.7
Gestational age (weeks) (N = 366)
 < 37 35 92.1 3 7.9 0.88
 37–41 247 92.5 20 7.5
  > 41 56 91.8 5 8.2
Number of fetuses
 1 368 91.5 34 8.5 0.15
 2 33 84.6 6 15.4
Indication for cesarean section
 Very severea 158 87.8 22 12.2 0.06
 Severeb 243 93.1 18 6.9  
Systolic blood pressure (N = 404)
 < 90 3 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.85
 90–140 354 91.5 33 8.5
 > 140 13 92.9 1 7.1
Maternal heart rate (beats per minute) (N = 383)
 ≤ 100 311 92.3 26 7.7 0.46
 > 100 41 89.1 5 10.9
Fetal heart rate (beats per minute) (N = 429)
 < 120 54 91.5 5 8.5 0.46
 120–160 323 91.8 29 8.2
 >160 15 83.3 3 16.7
  1. aVery severe indication: intrauterine rupture, fetal distress, cord prolapse, abruption placenta
  2. bSevere indication: preeclampsia, prolonged rupture of membranes, cephalopelvic disproportion, prolonged labor and mal-presentation