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Table 4 Core Maternal health indicators for global monitoring and reporting – definitions and data sources

From: A common monitoring framework for ending preventable maternal mortality, 2015–2030: phase I of a multi-step process

  Indicator Definition Numerator Denominator Disaggregation Data Source(s)
Impact Maternal Mortality Ratioa c Death from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, per 100,000 live births for a specified time period Number of maternal deaths Per 100,000 live births in the same period Sub-national HH surveys, CRVS, admin, modeled estimates. RAMOS, Confidential Inquiries, Census
Maternal cause of death (proportion) Deaths from any cause related or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy for a specified time period (using ICD-MM) Number of maternal deaths by cause Total number of maternal deaths in the same period Cause, Indirect/Direct HH surveys, CRVS, admin, modeled estimates, RAMOS, Confidential Inquiries
Adolescent birth ratec Number of births to women 15 to 19 years of age per 1,000 women within specified time period Number of births to women 15 to 19 years of age Per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years of age in the same period Sub-national HH surveys, census, CRVS
COVERAGE: care for all women and girls Four or more ANC visitsc Proportion of pregnant women and girls who have made at least four antenatal care visits within specified time period Number of women and girls who received ANC at least four times during pregnancy Total number of women and girls with a live birth in the same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
HH surveys
Skilled attendant at birtha c Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife) within a specified time period Number of live births attended by skilled health personnel Total number of live births in the same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
HH surveys
Institutional delivery Proportion of births in a health facility within a specified time period Number of live births in a health facility Total number of live births in the same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
HH surveys
Oxytocin immediately after birth for prevention of post-partum hemorrhageb Proportion of women and girls who gave birth in a facility receiving oxytocin immediately after birth within a specified time period Number of women and girls who gave birth in a facility who received oxytocin immediately after birth Total number women and girls with a facility birth in same period Sub-national
Age
HMIS, Facility records
Early postnatal/postpartum care for women and babies (within 2 days of birth)a c Proportion of women/girls with a recent birth and their babies who received postnatal care within two days of birth (regardless of place of delivery) within a specified time period Number of women/girls and their babies who received postnatal care within two days of childbirth Total number of women/girls with a last live birth in the same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
HH surveys
Met need for family planningc Proportion of women and girls, either married or in a union, who have their need for contraception satisfied within a specified time period Number of women and girls who have their need for contraception satisfied Total number of women and girls, married or in union, in need of contraception in same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
Postpartum/non-postpartum
HH surveys
COVERAGE: care for women and girls with complications Caesarean section ratea Proportion of women and girls with a live birth delivered by caesarean section within a specified time period Numbers deliveries by caesarean section Total number of live births to women and girls in same period Wealth quintile
Residence
Age
Sub-national
HH surveys
INPUT: counting Maternal death registration, including cause of deatha Proportion of maternal deaths registered with cause of death specified based on ICD-MM codes within a specified time period Number of maternal deaths registered with cause of death specified based on ICD-MM codes Total estimated number of maternal deaths in the same time period Sub-national Health facilities, CRVS, census
INPUT: Availability of care Availability of functional EmOC facilitiesa (per population) At least five emergency obstetric care facilities (per 500,000 people) including at least one comprehensive and the rest basic emergency obstetric care facilities. Number of obstetric care facilities that provided EmOC signal functionsd in the last three months Per 500,000 population Sub-national, Facility level HF surveys, routine facility monitoring, census or other population data source
  1. aENAP indicator
  2. bLink to WHO Quality of Care metrics
  3. cLink to WHO 100 Core Indicators
  4. dSignal functions; Basic: 1) parenteral antibiotics; 2) uterotonic drugs; 3) parenteral anticonvulsants for preeclampsia and eclampsia; 4) manual removal of placenta; 5) remove retained products (e.g. manual vacuum extraction, dilation and curettage); 6) perform assisted vaginal delivery (e.g. vacuum extraction, forceps delivery); and 7) basic neonatal resuscitation (e.g., with bag and mask); Comprehensive: All seven basic plus: 8) perform surgery (e.g., caesarean section); and 9) perform blood transfusion