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Table 3 Association between possible risk factors and DV during late pregnancy (N = 1509)

From: Prevalence and incidence of domestic violence during pregnancy and associated risk factors: a longitudinal cohort study in the south of Sweden

Independent variable n (%) DV reported during late pregnancy n (%) OR 95 % CI P-value (two-tailed)
History of violencea 668 (44.3) 17 (2.6) - <0.001
Age ≥35 269 (18.1) 2 (0.8) 0.6 (0.1–2.7) NS
Multiparae 760 (54.3) 11 (1.5) 1.9 (0.6–5.4) NS
Low educational status 481 (31.9) 10 (2.1) 3.1 (1.2–8.2) 0.016
Unemployed 74 (4.9) 2 (2.9) 2.7 (0.6–12.2) NS
Foreign language 357 (23.7) 6 (1.7) 1.8 (0.7–4.9) NS
Single/living apart 50 (3.3) 6 (12.2) 17.9 (6.4–50) <0.001
Financial distress 705 (46.7) 13 (1.9) 3.7 (1.2–11.5) 0.014
Alcohol consumption 330 (22.1) 4 (1.2) 1.1 (0.4–3.4) NS
Smoking/using wet tobacco 300 (20.1) 5 (1.7) 1.7 (0.6–4.8) NS
Overweight/obese 378 (26.0) 7 (1.9) 2.0 (0.8–5.3) NS
Unintended pregnancy 246 (16.5) 6 (2.4) 2.8 (1.01–7.5) 0.040
Miscarriage/abortion 91 (6.2) 2 (2.2) 2.1 (0.5–9.1) NS
Self-reported poor health 67 (4.6) 1 (1.5) 1.4 (0.2–10.7) NS
Lack of sleep 107 (7.2) 7 (6.7) 9.6 (3.6–25.8) <0.001
EDS ≥13 115 (8.2) 9 (8.0) 15.8 (5.8–43.4) <0.001
SOC Low score 364 (25.4) 13 (3.7) 9.9 (3.2–30.7) <0.001
  1. Statistical significant is accepted by p < 0.05
  2. a All (n = 17) reported history of violence and therefore OR with 95 % CI not shown