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Table 5 Sensitivity Analysis: Crude and adjusted Odds Ratio of pregnancy hypertensive disorders and congenital malformations excluding AFR countries

From: Are hypertensive disorders in pregnancy associated with congenital malformations in offspring? Evidence from the WHO Multicountry cross sectional survey on maternal and newborn health

  Chronic Hypertension Pre-eclampsia Eclampsia Chronic HT/preeclampsia
  Crude OR (CI 95 %) Adj ORa (CI 95 %) Crude OR (CI 95 %) Adj ORa (CI 95 %) Crude OR (CI 95 %) Adj ORa (CI 95 %) Crude OR (CI 95 %) Adj ORa (CI 95 %)
Congenital malformation         
Neural tube/Central Nervous System 4.4 (1.8–10.7) 2.4 (0.9–6.1) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) - - 9.7 (3.1–30.5) 4.2 (1.3–14.1)
Cardiac 2.6 (1.1–6.2) 1.9 (0.8–4.8) 3.1 (2.2–4.5) 2.4 (1.6–3.6) 1.2 (0.2–8.5) - 3.7 (0.9–15.1) 2.3 (0.5–9.6)
Renal 7.4 (2.7–20.2) 3.7 (1.3–10.7) 2.5 (1.1–5.3) 1.7 (0.8–3.8) - - 20.5 (6.5–64.9) 8.4 (2.4–29.5)
Limb 5.1 (2.3–11.6) 4.0 (1.7–9.5) 1.6 (0.8–3.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.6) - - 9.4 (3.0–29.4) 7.1 (2.1–23.5)
Lip/Cleft/Palate 5.3 (1.9–14.2) 4.4 (1.6–12.0) 1.5 (0.6–3.3) 1.4 (0.6–3.3) 3.0 (0.4–21.7) 2.9 (0.4–20.4) 9.6 (2.4–38.8) 7.7 (1.8–31.9)
Chromosomal 3.0 (0.7–12.1) 0.9 (0.1–6.7) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.3) - - 5.5 (0.8–39.2) 0.7 (0.3–4.3)
  1. aOR Adjusted for Age, Education, Previous births and Marital Status with country and facility as random mixed effect variable