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Table 3 Maternal characteristics in all Congenital Malformations groups

From: Are hypertensive disorders in pregnancy associated with congenital malformations in offspring? Evidence from the WHO Multicountry cross sectional survey on maternal and newborn health

  All women Neural tube/Central nervous system Cardiac Renal Limb Lip/Cleft/Palate Chromosomal
  N n (%) χ 2 n (%) χ 2 n (%) χ 2 n (%) χ 2 n (%) χ 2 n (%) χ 2
Maternal age (years)    0.9   <0.01   0.07   0.5   0.9   <0.01
 <20 31 259 31 (9.8)   39 (8.2)   7 (5.2)   42 (11.8)   18 (8.5)   14 (8.1)  
 20–35 244 425 238 (75.5)   340 (71.4)   111 (82.8)   278 (78.5)   162 (76.8)   91 (52.9)  
 >35 25 583 46 (14.7)   97 (20.4)   16 (12.0)   34 (9.7)   31 (14.7)   67 (39.0)  
 Missing 868             
Marital Status    0.6   0.09   0.3   0.7   0.09   0.5
 Single 30 583 35 (11.2)   32 (6.8)   10 (7.5)   38 (10.8)   12 (5.8)   15 (8.8)  
 Married 268 051 278 (88.8)   440 (93.2)   124 (92.5)   314 (89.2)   194 (94.2)   155 (91.2)  
 Missing 3 501             
Education (years)    0.4   <0.01   0.9   <0.01   <0.01   0.8
 <5 54 693 55 (18.5)   13 (3.2)   13 (10.1)   38 (12.4)   16 (8.6)   13 (8.8)  
 5–8 62 952 68 (23.0)   60 (14.8)   22 (17.0)   70 (22.9)   41 (21.8)   24 (16.3)  
 9–11 71 550 88 (29.7)   166 (41.0)   40 (31.0)   105 (34.3)   77 (40.9)   53 (36.1)  
 >11 88 274 85 (28.8)   165 (41.0)   54 (41.9)   93 (30.4)   54 (28.7)   57 (38.8)  
 Missing 24 666             
N previous births    0.3   0.2   0.5   0.4   0.2   <0.01
 0 128 479 123 (39.0)   208 (43.6)   52 (38.5)   161 (45.2)   76 (36.2)   58 (33.5)  
 1–2 125 401 135 (42.9)   216 (45.3)   63 (46.7)   156 (43.8)   97 (46.2)   78 (45.1)  
 >2 47 672 57 (18.1)   53 (11.1)   20 (14.8)   39 (11.0)   37 (17.6)   37 (21.4)  
 Missing 583