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Table 3 Combination of descriptive and simple logistic regression analysis to show the relationship between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D (N = 396)

From: Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia

Variable Serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L n (%) mean ± SD median (IQR) Serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L n (%) mean ± SD median (IQR) Crude OR (95 % CI) p value
Age(year)c 27.91 ± 3.95 29.47 ± 5.07 0.91 (0.84, 0.99) 0.026
Ethnic groupsc Malay 296 (96.40) 11 (3.60) 22.42 (9.63, 52.21) <0.001
Chinese 24 (54.50) 20 (45.5) 1.00  
Indian 32 (91.40) 3 (8.60) 8.89 (2.36, 33.40) 0.001
Others 6 (60.00) 4 (40.00) 1.25 (0.31, 5.06) 0.754
Education levelc Primary 11 (68.80) 5 (31.20) 1.00  
Secondary 136 (91.30) 13 (8.70) 4.75 (1.43, 15.80) 0.011
Tertiary 211 (91.30) 20 (8.70) 4.80 (1.52, 15.18) 0.008
Working Status Working 275 (91.40) 26 (8.60) 1.00 0.252
Not working 83 (87.40) 12 (12.60) 0.65 (0.32, 1.35)
Household income per monthc 3500 (2800,5000) 3750 (2500,5250) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00) 0.060
Household membersc 3 (2,4) 3 (2,5) 0.90 (0.75, 1.07) 0.225
Weeks of pregnancy at first antenatal visitc 10.0 (8.0,12.0) 11.5 (8.0,12.0) 0.89 (0.77,1.02) 0.100
Parityc 0 (0,1) 1 (0,1) 0.79 (0.61, 1.03) 0.083
Last child birth ≤ 2 years 111 (89.50) 13 (10.50) 0.86 (0.43,1.75) 0.686
>2 yearsa 247 (90.80) 25 (9.20) 1.00  
Breastfeeding Yes 36 (87.80) 5 (12.20) 0.74 (0.27,2.01) 0.552
Nob 322 (90.70) 33 (9.30) 1.00  
BMI before pregnant (kg/m2) 22.76 (20.00,26.25) 22.15 (19.75,26.58) 1.02 (0.96,1.09) 0.499
Weight at first antenatal visit (kg) 57.85 (49.30,68.54) 57.03 (51.49,65.61) 1.01 (0.98,1.03) 0.569
Fitzpatrick Classificationc Skin type I-II 83 (80.60) 20 (19.40) 1.00  
Skin type III 163 (94.20) 10 (5.80) 3.93 (1.76,8.77) 0.001
Skin type IV-VI 112 (93.30) 8 (6.70) 3.37 (1.42,8.03) 0.006
Melanin Indices (using Mexameter) (0-999.000) 306.17 (254.17,373.67) 242.83 (181.08, 354.00) 1.01 (1.00,1.01) 0.006
Sun protection score (0-8)c 5 (4,5) 3.5 (1,5) 1.77 (1.42,2.21) <0.001
Total of respondents exposed to sunlight (10 am-2 pm) Yes 201 (90.10) 22 (9.90) 1.00  
No 157 (90.80) 16 (9.20) 1.07 (0.55,2.11) 0.836
The length of time exposed to sunlight (minutes in week) 35 (0,150) 55 (0,210) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.570
Intake of vitamin D from food (IU/day)c 197.51 (122.70,332.05) 263.81 (142.90,460.55) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.042
Intake of vitamin D from food and supplements (IU/day) 215.080 (132.93,361.98) 302.135 (147.89,515.74) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.064
The level of vitamin D in foods and supplements (IU/day)     
<200 IU/day 165 (92.70) 13 (7.30) 1.64 (0.82,3.32) 0.165
≥200 IU/day 193 (88.50) 25 (11.50) 1.00  
  1. OR odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. p values have been derived from Wald tests
  3. aRespondents with last child birth more than 2 years and respondents who did not have previous child (primid)
  4. bRespondents who did not breastfeed during pregnancy and those who did not have children.
  5. cIndependent variables included in the multiple logistic regression
  6. 1.00 as a reference group