Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Socio-demographic, antenatal, skin characteristics and vitamin D intake of first trimester pregnant women (N = 396)

From: Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia

Independent variables n Percent Mean ± SD / Median (IQR 25 %, 75 %)
A) Socio-demographic factors
 Age (year)    28.06 ± 4.09 (min = 18, max = 40)
 Ethnic groups    
  Malay 307 77.5  
  Chinese 44 11.2  
  Indian 35 8.8  
  Others 10 2.5  
 Educational status    
  Primary School 16 4.0  
  Secondary School 149 37.6  
  Tertiary School 231 58.4  
 Working Status    
  Working 301 76.0  
  Not working 95 24.0  
 Household members    3 (2,4) (min = 2, max = 12)
 Household income per month    RM3500 (2800,5000) (min = RM900, max = RM20 000)
B) Factors related to antenatal
 Week of pregnancy    10 (8,12) (min = 4, max = 12)
 Gravidity    2 (1,3) (min = 1, max = 9)
 Parity    0 (0,1) (min = 0, max = 6)
 Smoking status    
  Yes 3 0.8  
  No 393 99.2  
 Last Child Birth    
  ≤ 2 years 124 61.1  
  >2 years 79 38.9  
  Not applicable (first pregnancy) 193   
 Still breastfeeding    
  Yes 41 22.9  
  No 138 79.1  
  Not applicable (no child) 217   
 Body Mass Index (BMI) before pregnancy(kg/m2)    22.69 (19.95, 26.36) (min = 14.29, max = 53.90)
 Weight at first antenatal visit (kg)    57.70 (49.60,68.00) (min = 33.00, max = 148.70)
C) Factors related to skin
 Fitzpatrick skin classification    
  Skin type I -II 103 26.0  
  Skin type III 173 43.7  
  Skin type IV-VI 120 30.3  
 Melanin Indices (using Mexameter 18) (0-999.000)    302.17 (245.00, 302.17) (min = 133.33, max = 949.33)
 Sun protection score (0-8)    5 (4,5) (min = 0, max = 7)
 The length of time exposed to sunlight (minutes per week)    37.50 (0,150) (min = 0, max = 1680)
D) Factors related to vitamin D intake
 Intake of vitamin D in food (IU/day)    202.16 (124.94, 334.62) (min = 13.50, max = 1523.12)
 The number of respondents taking antenatal supplements    
  Taking supplements containing vitamin D 44 11.1  
  Taking supplements without vitamin D intake 6 1.5  
  Not taking supplement 346 87.4  
 Calcium and vitamin D supplement    
  No 386 97.5  
  Yes 10 2.5  
 Intake of vitamin D from food and supplements (IU/day)    220.04 (137.88, 376.45) (min = 15.10, max = 1523.12)
 The level of vitamin D taken from food and supplements (IU/day)    
  <200 IU/day 178 44.90  
  ≥200 IU/day 218 55.10