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Table 4 Factors associated with continuing smoking during pregnancy (n = 2944)

From: Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Maternal characteristics OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Region of residency     
Western Europe* 1.37 1.11-1.68 1.46 1.16-1.84
Northern Europe 1   1  
Eastern Europe§ 1.19 0.97-1.46 1.66 1.31-2.10
Maternal age     
≤ 20 1.46 1.03-2.09 0.93 0.63-1.39
21-30 1   1  
31-40 0.97 0.81-1.16 1.19 0.97-1.45
> 40 1.72 0.90-3.30 1.82 0.91-3.65
Marital status     
Married/cohabiting 1   1  
Other 2.13 1.63-2.77 1.75 1.30-2.35
Highest education level     
Less than high school 3.75 2.78-5.08 3.64 2.58-5.14
High school 2.58 2.12-3.13 2.53 2.05-3.11
More than high school 1   1  
Other 1.97 1.50-2.59 1.99 1.49-2.66
Health literacy **     
Low 1.54 1.13-2.09 1.49 1.08-2.06
Medium 1   1  
High 1.00 0.84-1.19 1.06 0.87-1.28
Working status     
Employed (not as HCP) 1   1  
Healthcare personnel (HCP) 0.85 0.64-1.12 0.92 0.68-1.23
Housewife 2.08 1.54-2.81 1.43 1.04-1.97
Other 1.45 1.18-1.77 1.21 0.97-1.52
First language     
Same as in country of residency 1   - -
Other 0.96 0.65-1.41 - -
Previous children     
No 1   1  
Yes 1.31 1.11-1.55 1.24 1.03-1.49
Co-morbidity not incl. RD ††     
No 1   - -
Yes 1.19 0.97-1.47 - -
Respiratory disease §§     
No 1   - -
Yes 0.84 0.63-1.11 - -
Planned pregnancy     
Yes/not completely unexpected 1   1  
No, it was not planned 1.77 1.40-2.25 1.31 1.00-1.72
Folic acid use *†     
Yes 1   1  
No 1.74 1.36-2.23 1.59 1.22-2.06
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy     
No 1   - -
Yes 1.21 0.98-1.49 - -
  1. The outcome variable is categorized as Continuing smoking during pregnancy (yes = 1) and Quitting smoking during pregnancy (no = 0).
  2. Significant p-values are in bold.
  3. HCP = health care provider; RD = respiratory disease.
  4. Numbers may not add up to total due to missing values. For Folic acid use and Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the response ‘cannot remember’ was treated as a missing value. Missing values are less than 5% of the total.
  5. *Includes Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom.
  6. Includes Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
  7. §Includes Croatia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia.
  8. **Measured by a self-assessment scale comprising three questions corresponding to the set of brief screening questions (SBSQ) developed to detect inadequate or marginal health literacy in clinical settings [26, 27].
  9. ††Includes the presence of a chronic disease (hypothyroidism, rheumatic diseases (incl. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), diabetes (type I or II), epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases (incl. hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart diseases) or others (open-ended option)).
  10. §§Includes the presence of asthma, allergy, rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, or other respiratory tract conditions.
  11. *†Indicates folic acid use before and/or during pregnancy.