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Table 3 Factors associated with smoking before pregnancy (n = 8344)

From: Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Maternal characteristics OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Region of residency     
Western Europe* 0.92 0.82-1.02 0.93 0.83-1.05
Northern Europe 1   1  
Eastern Europe§ 1.91 1.70-2.14 2.25 1.99-2.55
Maternal age     
≤ 20 2.51 1.93-3.26 1.31 0.97-1.76
21-30 1   1  
31-40 0.65 0.59-0.71 0.82 0.74-0.91
> 40 0.49 0.34-0.71 0.57 0.39-0.83
Marital status     
Married/cohabiting 1   1  
Other 2.89 2.36-3.53 2.22 1.78-2.77
Highest education level     
Less than high school 3.57 2.87-4.44 4.23 3.32-5.38
High school 1.78 1.61-1.97 1.95 1.74-2.18
More than high school 1   1  
Other 1.30 1.12-1.50 1.48 1.27-1.73
Health literacy **     
Low 1.25 1.04-1.52 - -
Medium 1   - -
High 0.68 0.62-0.75 - -
Working status     
Employed (not as HCP) 1   1  
Healthcare personnel (HCP) 0.84 0.73-0.97 0.99 0.85-1.14
Housewife 0.86 0.73-1.03 0.73 0.60-0.88
Other 1.31 1.16-1.47 0.97 0.85-1.11
First language     
Same as in country of residency 1   - -
Other 0.81 0.06-0.99 - -
Previous children     
No 1   1  
Yes 0.78 0.71-0.86 0.80 0.73-0.89
Morbidity not incl. RD ††     
Yes 1.07 0.95-1.20 - -
No 1   - -
Respiratory disease §§     
Yes 0.92 0.80-1.07 - -
No 1   - -
Planned pregnancy     
Yes/not completely unexpected 1   1  
No, it was not planned 1.70 1.45-1.98 1.32 1.11-1.56
Folic acid use *†     
Yes 1   1  
No 1.75 1.49-2.05 1.66 1.40-1.97
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy     
Yes 1.27 1.12-1.43 1.36 1.19-1.55
No 1   1  
  1. The outcome variable is categorized as Smoking before pregnancy (yes = 1) and Never smoked (no = 0).
  2. Significant p-values are in bold.
  3. HCP = health care provider; RD = respiratory disease.
  4. Numbers may not add up to total due to missing values. For Folic acid use and Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the response ‘cannot remember’ was treated as a missing value. Missing values are less than 5% of the total.
  5. *Includes Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom.
  6. Includes Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
  7. §Includes Croatia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia.
  8. **Measured by a self-assessment scale comprising three questions corresponding to the set of brief screening questions (SBSQ) developed to detect inadequate or marginal health literacy in clinical settings [26, 27].
  9. ††Includes the presence of a chronic disease (hypothyroidism, rheumatic diseases (incl. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), diabetes (type I or II), epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases (incl. hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart diseases) or others (open-ended option)).
  10. §§Includes the presence of asthma, allergy, rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, or other respiratory tract conditions.
  11. *†Indicates folic acid use before and/or during pregnancy.