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Table 1 Maternal characteristics of non-smokers and smokers before pregnancy and of continuers and quitters during pregnancy

From: Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

Maternal characteristics Total study sample (n = 8344) Women smoking (n = 2944)
Women not smoking Women smoking before pregnancy p-value Women who continued smoking when pregnant Women who quit smoking when pregnant p-value
(n = 5400) (64.7%) (n = 2944) (35.3%)   (n = 771) (26.2%) (n = 2173) (73.8%)  
n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Region of residency       
Western Europe* 2240 (41.5) 954 (32.4) <0.001 277 (35.9) 677 (31.2) 0.014
Northern Europe 1922 (35.6) 893 (30.3)   206 (26.7) 687 (31.6)  
Eastern Europe§ 1238 (22.9) 1097 (37.3)   288 (37.4) 809 (37.2)  
Maternal age       
≤ 20 95 (1.8) 151 (5.1) <0.001 51 (6.6) 100 (4.6) 0.051
21-30 2802 (51.9) 1777 (60.4)   459 (59.5) 1318 (60.7)  
31-40 2375 (44.0) 976 (33.2)   246 (31.9) 730 (33.6)  
> 40 128 (2.4) 40 (1.4)   15 (1.9) 25 (1.2)  
Marital status       
Married/cohabiting 5232 (96.9) 2694 (91.5) <0.001 668 (86.6) 2026 (93.2) <0.001
Other 168 (3.1) 250 (8.5)   103 (13.4) 147 (6.8)  
Highest education level       
Less than high school 147 (2.7) 220 (7.5) <0.001 95 (12.3) 125 (5.8) <0.001
High school 1360 (25.2) 1014 (34.4)   348 (45.1) 666 (30.6)  
More than high school 3260 (60.4) 1366 (46.4)   230 (29.8) 1136 (52.3)  
Other 633 (11.7) 344 (11.7)   98 (12.7) 246 (11.3)  
Health literacy **       
Low 264 (5.0) 215 (7.4) <0.001 74 (9.8) 141 (6.6) 0.015
Medium 2113 (39.7) 1372 (47.4)   349 (46.3) 1023 (47.8)  
High 2943 (55.3) 1305 (45.1)   331 (43.9) 974 (45.6)  
Working status       
Employed (not as HCP) 3273 (60.7) 1755 (59.7) <0.001 418 (54.4) 1337 (61.6) <0.001
Healthcare personnel (HCP) 772 (14.3) 349 (11.9)   73 (9.5) 276 (12.7)  
Housewife 449 (8.3) 208 (7.1)   82 (10.7) 126 (5.8)  
Other 898 (16.7) 629 (21.4)   196 (25.5) 433 (19.9)  
First language       
Same as in country of residency 5071 (94.1) 2795 (95.2) 0.047 733 (95.3) 2062 (95.1) 0.894
Other 318 (5.9) 142 (4.8)   36 (4.7) 106 (4.9)  
Previous children       
No 2633 (48.8) 1617 (54.9) <0.001 385 (49.9) 1232 (56.7) 0.001
Yes 2767 (51.2) 1327 (45.1)   386 (50.1) 941 (43.3)  
Morbidity not incl. RD ††       
Yes 541 (18.4) 941 (17.4) 0.291 157 (20.4) 384 (17.7) 0.109
No 2403 (81.6) 4459 (82.6)   614 (79.6) 1789 (82.3)  
Respiratory disease §§       
Yes 306 (10.4) 603 (11.2) 0.296 71 (9.2) 235 (10.8) 0.235
No 2638 (89.6) 4797 (88.8)   700 (90.8) 1938 (89.2)  
Planned pregnancy       
Yes/not completely unexpected 5002 (93.0) 2606 (88.7) <0.001 647 (84.0) 1959 (90.3) <0.001
No, it was not planned 377 (7.0) 333 (11.3)   123 (16.0) 210 (9.7)  
Folic acid use *†       
Yes 5022 (93.5) 2600 (89.2) <0.001 642 (84.9) 1958 (90.7) <0.001
No 347 (6.5) 314 (10.8)   114 (15.1) 200 (9.3)  
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy       
Yes 790 (14.8) 527 (18.0) <0.001 154 (20.1) 373 (17.3) 0.090
No 4556 (85.2) 2398 (82.0)   612 (79.9) 1786 (82.7)  
  1. HCP = health care provider; RD = respiratory disease.
  2. Numbers may not add up to total due to missing values. For Folic acid use and Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the response ‘cannot remember’ was treated as a missing value. Missing values are less than 5% of the total.
  3. *Includes Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom.
  4. Includes Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
  5. §Includes Croatia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia.
  6. **Measured by a self-assessment scale comprising three questions corresponding to the set of brief screening questions (SBSQ) developed to detect inadequate or marginal health literacy in clinical settings [26, 27].
  7. ††Includes the presence of a chronic disease (hypothyroidism, rheumatic diseases (incl. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), diabetes (type I or II), epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases (incl. hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart diseases) or others (open-ended option)).
  8. §§Includes the presence of asthma, allergy, rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, or other respiratory tract conditions.
  9. *†Indicates folic acid use before and/or during pregnancy.