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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of the association between previous cesarean section and placenta previa by study characteristics

From: Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

  Not including current study   Including current study
  Number of Studies Random Effects Pooled OR Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI I2   Number of Studies Random Effects Pooled OR Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI I2
Overall 37 2.199 1.964 2.462 86.1%   38 2.155 1.941 2.395 86.0%
Study design            
   Cohort studies 23 2.345 2.045 2.690 89.7%   24 2.284 2.014 2.591 89.5%
   Case-control studies 14 1.933 1.517 2.464 71.0%   14 1.933 1.517 2.464 71.0%
Setting            
   Population-based studies 11 1.674 1.549 1.809 86.7%   12 1.664 1.553 1.785 56.0%
   Hospital-based studies 26 2.677 2.146 3.339 86.8%   26 2.677 2.146 3.339 86.8%
Timing of PP diagnosis            
   Confirmed at CS 13 2.515 1.751 3.613 88.2%   13 2.515 1.751 3.613 88.2%
   Other 24 1.982 1.781 2.206 80.9%   25 1.936 1.756 2.135 80.7%
Inclusion criteria            
   Studies analyzing 2nd births only 7 1.504 1.383 1.635 0%   8 1.540 1.442 1.645 0%
   Other 30 2.462 2.138 2.835 87.6%   30 2.462 2.138 2.835 87.6%
Risk-adjustment            
   Adjusted for age and parity 14 1.648 1.515 1.792 52.3%   15 1.642 1.524 1.769 54.1%
   Unadjusted estimates 23 2.712 2.174 3.383 87.7%   23 2.712 2.174 3.383 87.7%