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Table 5 Pooled estimates effect of preconception care

From: Preconception care for diabetic women for improving maternal and fetal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Dichotomous outcomes of preconception care No of studies [references] Risk Ratio (95%Confedance interval)
Congenital malformation 11 [10, 16, 1921, 23, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33] 0.25(0.15,0.42)
Perinatal Mortality 5 [10, 16, 20, 23, 33] 0.35(0.15,0.82)
Macrosomia 3 [10, 20, 23] 1.03(0.81,1.30)
Cesarean Section 5 [10, 16, 20, 21, 23] 1.08(0.96,1.22)
Preterm Delivery 4 [10, 16, 20, 23] 0.7 (0.55,0.90)
Pre-eclampsia 3 [10, 20, 21] 0.92(0.62,1.35)
Neonatal Hypoglycemia 3 [20, 21, 23] 0.65(0.39,1.08)
Maternal Hypoglycemia 2 [10, 28] 1.51(1.15,1.99)
Spontaneous Abortion 7 [10, 15, 20, 23, 25, 26, 32] 0.78(0.55,1.11)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome 3 [20, 21, 23] 0.55(0.26,1.16)
Small for Gestation Age 2 [20, 23] 0.26(0.05,1.41)
Continuous outcomes Number of studies ( references) Means difference (95% CI)
The difference in the level of glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c 4 [10, 21, 26, 28] 2.43(2.27,2.58)
The difference in gestational age at first visit to antenatal care 3 [10, 23, 26] 1.32 (1.23, 1.40)